Judgment, Our Value Judgments, Moral Judgments and Religious JudgmentsJune 28, 2021
A judgment is a statement that expresses a claim based on a fact or concepts.
Judgments are divided into two as belonging to the field of facts and to the field of values. Judgments belonging to the field of phenomena are propositional (logic) judgments about science and knowledge. These judgments do not include personal evaluation, therefore they do not change from person to person (universal), they are precise and objective. E.g; Water boils at 100 degrees. Value judgments are judgments that emerge depending on the qualities that people attribute to facts. These are subjective as they involve personal assessment. It varies from person to person.
There are three kinds of judgments belonging to the field of values. These are aesthetic judgments (beautiful, ugly), religious judgments (good deeds, sin) and moral judgments (good, bad).
Moral judgments are based on actions that qualify as good or bad. These actions require doing good and not doing bad. Therefore, it is normative. Moral judgments are subjective. In other words, it can vary from person to person, from time to time and from society to society.
Religious judgments, on the other hand, have an unchanging structure and are based on religious rules that are considered sacred. They are of an uncritical nature (dogmaticity). Aesthetic judgments, on the other hand, are judgments based on taste, such as being beautiful or ugly. It is not based on reason, but on feelings and intuition. Because of these features, they are subjective.
Compiled by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Grade 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and Grade 3 “History of Contemporary Philosophy” (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook