Justice, Equality and PropertyJune 28, 2021
The problem of justice is one of the oldest problems of political philosophy. This problem is as old as the history of philosophy. Because human is an entity that emerges with the demand for rights and justice in the face of unfair and unjust situations. Therefore, the question of justice has been one of the oldest problems of philosophy.
The concept of justice, which is also at the center of the ethical discipline of philosophy, is a concept examined in political philosophy in relation to society and the state. While Ethics and Value Philosophy looks at the concept of justice on its own, social and political philosophies investigate where and how a just society and just state can be in question, and they try to do this on the basis of the concepts of Ethics and Value Philosophy and even Human Philosophy. The concept of right is always considered together with the concept of duty. Because citizens have rights and duties. Homework also emerges as obligations that citizens must fulfill. Rights and duties are closely related to the question of justice. In a just society, while citizens do their duty, their rights are also protected by the state.
In the history of political philosophy, the property problem is one of the oldest problems that has been dealt with on the basis of the concepts of equality and justice. The problem of distributive justice is whether it is possible to act according to the principle of equality in the distribution of property. In this discussion, questions such as whether people naturally have the right to property are discussed. It is tried to be solved according to the concepts of equality and justice whether people have unlimited right to own property. There are different opinions on this subject in the history of political philosophy. For instance, while J. Locke sees property as a natural right, J. J. Rousseau interprets property as a phenomenon contrary to equality and nature.
Another fundamental concept is the concept of civil society. As we mentioned above, the state cannot be considered independently of people and society. Political philosophy has always questioned the relationship of the individual with society and the state. This questioning also gives us the concept of civil society. Civil society is a society in which the individuals that make up the society are not citizens of a superior power, but citizens (Dinçer 2010, p. 185). However, in civil society and in a state of law built on this society, the rights of individuals are protected and there are related freedoms arising from the protection of these rights.