Kantianism, What is Kantism?July 2, 2021
Kantism or Kantism is the philosophical teaching of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant. From the end of the 18th century to the present, many thinkers have established their philosophy within the framework of Kant’s teaching, Kantism or Kantianism.
After 1786, both the commentators and apprentices of Kant started to work in Germany. In general, thinkers who are followers of Kant from the 18th century to the present took Kant’s philosophy teaching as their starting point and named themselves.
Kantianism has been used for all philosophical tendencies that take Immanuel Kant’s philosophy as their basis. Kantism was especially influential in 19th and 20th century philosophy and emerged as a re-evaluation of Kant’s various categories. In this context, Kantianism shifted to a new interpretation and especially from the middle of the 19th century, Kantianism emerged under the name of Neo-Kantianism.
Kantianism was developed on the basis of universities as an academic or chair philosophy and was named so. In terms of their main tendencies, it is possible to specify these as approaches that adopt Kant’s transcendental idealism on the one hand, and approaches based on Kant’s critical philosophy on the other. With Kant’s transcendental idealism, critical theory of knowledge emerges as the basis from these tendencies.
It is possible to gather the basic areas of Kant’s philosophy teaching within the framework of two fields, in three main currents: Classical Kantians, Post-Kantian and Neo-Kantian.
CRITICISM OF KANTIANism
The tendency to oppose Kant, to transcend critical philosophy, and especially to the a priori constitution of the object, gave birth to the great post-Kantian metaphysics of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel, while Schelling’s “philosophy of nature” later influenced German romanticism ( F. Hölderlin, Novalis, Schlegel, L. Tieck, GH Schubert, Kerner, CG Carus, H. Stefens, FX von Baader, KF Solger, FE Schleiermacher) and Hegel’s ‘dialectical idealism’, first Hegelianism, then He also introduced Marxism as its opposite.
XIX. XX with the second half of the century. At the beginning of the century, a turn towards genuine Kantian criticism emerged. This movement included Renouvier (after 1851 the Essais de Critique Generale [Experiment of General Criticism]), Cournot (probabilism), and Auguste Comte (positivism); At the same time, a broad current of relativism and idealism, namely neo-Kantianism, emerged. The principal representatives of this movement in Germany are: O. Liebman (Kant und die Epigonen [Kant and His Apprentices], 1965); F. A. Lange (Geschichte des Materialismus [History of Materialism]); A, Riehl (Der Philosophische Kritizismus [Philosophical Criticism]); philosophers of the Marburg school (H. Cohen, P. Natorp, E. Cassirer); Baden school philosophers (W. Windelband, H. Rickert, E. Tröltsch, B. Bauch) and relativists (G. Simmel, J. Volkelt, L. Klages), Neo-Kantianism, Thomas Hill Green (1836) in England -1882) by Idealists such as F. H. Bradley, B. Bosanquet and J. Mc Taggart were also influenced by this movement. In Italy, the main representatives of the same movement are C. Cantoni, G. Barzelotti, A. Chiappeli, and in Denmark Harald Höffding.
The empiriocriticism of R. Avenarius and E. Mach and the “criticism of the sciences” movement in France (J. Lachelier, E. Boutroux, H. Bergson, H. Poincare, P. Duhem) were influenced by Neo-Kantianism. The view (Bachelard, Gonseth), called “open philosophy”, showed how Kant’s a priori could be criticised, by integrating the latest results of the sciences, and tried to overcome this a priori.
Although some started off by criticizing Kant, they reached new systems by following Kant’s footsteps. Fichte, Schelling, Hegel are on this path. Others interpreted Kant in new ways and tried to reconcile it with contemporary thought (new Kantianism).