Kant’s Judgment ClassificationDecember 24, 2019
First of all, we should point out that Kant does not speak of propositions within his system, but of the classification of judgments.
For Kant, judgment is an act of thinking. During the development process of language philosophy, Kant’s classification of judgments was applied to propositions. Some of them, while proposing news sentences caste; some called objective proposition itself, which is expressed in different forms or in different languages. These differences should not be overlooked when reading the discussions.
As will be recalled, Hume made a distinction between the relations of ideas based on the relations of ideas and the matters of fact expressing the facts when referring to the classification of our knowledge. All meaningful propositions or judgments suggested that this dual classification was encompassed, and any other expressions were meaningless.
Kant made his own classification in two different dimensions. The first dimension, with information science; the second dimension can be seen in relation to semantics. According to the first dimension, if there is no need for empirical experience to decide the correctness of a judiciary, it is a priori; if necessary, it is called a posteriori. According to the second dimension, if the concept which is in the position of predicate is included in the concept that is the subject, the judgment is analytical; if not included, it is called synthetic. From this dual classification, Kant identified four different types of jurisdictions. On the other hand, there are no analytical and posteriori judgments. Analytical a priori, synthetic a posteriori and synthetic a priori judgments remain. According to Kant, Hume’s truths based on the correlations of ideas are met by analytic a priori judgments. These are general logical judgments. Hume’s facts that express the facts correspond to synthetic posteriori judgments. All judgments with empirical content are synthetic a posteriori judgments.
He gives an example of Kant’s analytic a priori judgments: “All objects are elongated”. When we think about the concept of body, we also consider space as a partial concept. For this reason, the concept of “space”, which is considered within the concept of “body,, is referred to“ body da in this judgment. In this respect, this judgment is analytical. In order to verify an analytical judgment, we do not need experience. Therefore, from the scientific point of view, this judgment is a priori. The point to be considered here is that, according to Kant, any judiciary can be analytic and a priori, it can be a judgment on its name, that is, it is understood by a judicial act. The development of a philosophical understanding based on semantics necessitated criticism of these actions on which Kant’s semantics is based.
Semantics, at the heart of analytical philosophy, is based on a critique of psychologists’ approaches. Psychological approaches argue that there is no objective content independent of subjective psychological acts. Here, however, it would be more appropriate to consider the psychological in a metaphysical context, not in relation to contemporary psychology. By psychological acts here, Kant is often referred to in his own philosophy as the performances of the spirit (such as thinking, sensing, imagination) that establish the experience.
What is interesting and new within Kant’s transcendental philosophy is the synthetic and a priori judgments. According to Kant, analytical judgments are explanatory for the information contained in a concept we have. Synthetic judgments broaden our knowledge. Synthetic a priori judgments can both expand our knowledge and be accurate without the need for sensory experience.
According to Kant, first of all, the judgments of mathematics are synthetic and a priori. In order for synthetic posteriori judgments to be accurate, there is a need for a third thing that links the concepts of subject and predicate, an object present in experience. In the case of synthetic a priori judgments, this third thing is a priori objects built on the pure vision of space and time. Since the building in question is based on a priori background, the synthetic judgments of mathematics are correct as a priori. Kant, geometry (while only Euklides of Euclidean geometry because discovered found) axioms, as such, is a synthetic and a priori. As they are synthetic and a priori, they have universal necessity and objective validity.
In the first half of the nineteenth century, when Kant’s theory was generally accepted, there was a development that would shake this theory. Non-Euclidean geometries are discovered.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook