Karl Heinrich Marx (Marx) InfluencersJune 27, 2021
Those who influenced Karl Marx can be briefly listed as follows:
– Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s dialectical method and his understanding of history, (German philosophy)
– Adam Smith and David Ricardo political economy, (British economics)
– French egalitarian and socialist thought, especially Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (French politics)
Marx believed that history and society should be considered together with a scientific method. Marx’s understanding of history is defined as historical materialism. Engels and Lenin also treat it as dialectical materialism. But Hegel’s thought was criticized by Marx for putting idealism on the basis of this dialectic.
“Hegel was the first man to try to demonstrate that there is an inner development, an interconnection in history, and much of his philosophy of history, however strange as it may seem to us today, is fundamental when we compare it with those who followed it, and even those who subsequently attempted to make general reasonings on history. In his Phénoménologie, his Aesthetics, his History of Philosophy, this sublime conception of history permeates everywhere, and everywhere the subject remains in its definite relation to history, albeit historically, abstractly turned upside down. examined.”
In popular parlance, Marx puts Hegel upside down on his feet.
Ludwig Feuerbach was also influential in Marx’s rejection of Hegel’s idealism and his adoption of the materialist dialectic. Feuerbach et al. say that God is a human creation and uses the dialectical method to analyze religion and politics by breaking away from its theological dimension. Nor does Marx agree that this world hides any “real” things from people, on the contrary, religion and idealism historically and socially prevent people from clearly seeing their true position. He criticizes Feuerbach after breaking with the Young Hegelians, but this does not mean that he does not have the dimension of influence.
Although Marx makes rare references to Jean Jacques Rousseau, Rousseau is an important philosopher who made a serious attack on private property and contributed to egalitarian thought, and it is difficult to say that he was not influential in forming Marx’s thought on these issues. Although Marx describes them as utopian, he also does not deny the importance of the views of socialist thinkers such as Charles Fourier and Saint-Simon:
“But these socialist and communist publications also contain a critical element. They attack all the principles of existing society. That is why they are filled with the most valuable material to enlighten the working class.” (Communist Manifesto)