Karl Marx and Materialism (Materialism)June 28, 2021
Another famous representative of materialism is Karl Marx (Karl Marx).
Influenced by the materialism of Feuerbach (Foyerbah) and the dialectic of Hegel, Marx developed a new theory that he called dialectical materialism. Marx says that Hegel’s dialectic stands upside down, and he puts it on his feet. In Hegel’s system, existence begins with the idea, and the idea creates matter and nature. In Marx, on the other hand, it starts with matter, thought is the product of matter. In other words, the material creates the intellectual.
According to Marx, change in the world does not occur mechanically, but according to dialectical laws (thesis, antithesis and synthesis), through sudden jumps. In this process of change, matter changes form. Thus, matter creates beings that differ from each other in terms of quality.
Marx applied dialectical materialism to both nature and society. Just as the material in nature determines the intellectual, the mode of production in society determines the cultural, political and economic life. Accordingly, the main driver of human actions is the economic structure. According to him, economic forces and means of production constitute the infrastructure. The structure of society and its institutions are shaped according to the economic structure. Classification of the society shaped according to the infrastructure, laws, institutions, etc. forms the superstructure.
Compiled by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Grade 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and Grade 3 “History of Contemporary Philosophy” (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook