Knowledge Problem in Islamic Philosophy, Philosophy of KnowledgeDecember 22, 2019
Islamic thinkers and theologians have approached the problem of knowledge from various angles. One of the Islamic thinkers, Fârâbî believes that it is not a knowledge that a person makes an opinion by pointing to anything, but that this is a stage in the formation of definitive knowledge. According to him, opinion is the belief that something is as thought. He states that if the thought is something other than the human mind, that opinion can turn into knowledge. When a person becomes aware that his or her judgment is in conformity with the outside and justifies that this judgment did not occur by chance, that judgment may become definitive information. This view can also be considered within the “eligibility criterion” that we consider about the accuracy criteria of information .
Ghazali thinks that human beings can access some information with their senses and mind. According to him, senses and reason are insufficient in obtaining definite information. Because according to him the senses that perceive the material things and the mind thinking on these material things, although it is able to decide the correctness or inaccuracy of the information, it is not reliable in giving the exact information because of its inherent error. The only thing that can be trusted at this point, he says, is the intuition that takes place in the mind of one’s own experience. According to him, intuition occurs in the heart. Intuitively indicates that information comes directly to the heart. In this context, skepticism and intuitionism appear as philosophical movements that can be directed for Ghazali.
For theologians, there are three reliable sources of information: healthy working senses, methodically operated mind, and coherent / coherent news. The source of information consists of describing a priori knowledge of the mind “bedihiyyât / clear”, “evveliyyât / a priori” and “zaruriyyât / mandatory” expressed in terms that theologians, the “evil eye” reasoning they gave the name “ta’lîl / deductive ” and “istikrâ / induction ” to be two forms.
There are two types of “faithful / true news leri that the theologians see as the third reliable source of information: ev humble news” and “divine revelation.. (a) The modest news is the information given jointly by a large number of people who cannot form a consensus in the name of deceiving people, and this is the information produced by all sciences with a historical dimension and quality. (b) The information that the prophets took from the divine source in a special way called “revelation a and conveyed to people is also considered true news. Because of the solid characters, reliable personalities, superior morals, divine principles and messages brought by the prophets supported by the miracles that they are specially chosen ambassadors, their exemplary and leadership, and the positive changes and developments of the totals they live in, science and art,
In the context of the question of knowledge, it is important to point out on the part of the theologians that they accept the individual and subjective plan and do not consider inspiration and mystical intuition as a source of binding and reliable information for everyone.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook, MEB Textbook