Late Period of Scholastic Philosophy, Late PeriodJune 28, 2021
In the last period of scholasticism, philosophy will become more autonomous and separate from religion, and the effort to unite reason and belief will be abandoned. Conceptual realism, which was seen in the beginning and rising period, declined in this period.
Nominalism will play a decisive role in this development and in the autonomy of philosophy. In addition, the deepening of the conflict between the Dominican and Franciscan orders deepened this process. The Franciscans have always objected to the synchronization or linking of theology and the natural sciences. The end of these discussions prepared the reformation. In this sense, the cultural developments that prepared the Renaissance took place in the last period of the scholastic: the Reformation and the development of the natural sciences.
Johannes Duns Scottus should be mentioned as the first name of this period. In his thought, universal concepts are reflections of the objective world. He also gave priority to will and advocated voluntarism. He led the idea of freedom of will to indeterminism.
William of Ockham is not only a major philosopher of the late scholastic, but plays a decisive role in the systematization and development of nominalism. According to him, all real consists of particular objects, and universals are made-up things.
Universals are symbols we make up for objects based on the general similarities of particular objects. In this way, experiment is put on the basis of knowledge. Since we do not have experience with God and eternity, knowledge in these areas is knowledge of faith. Such information cannot be called knowledge in the real sense, they can only be believed. Thus, a clear distinction is made between belief and knowledge. The development in this direction will bring about the Renaissance.
Roger Bacon is another name of the late scholastic that should be mentioned. The concepts of experiment and experience take on an even more precise appearance in his approach. His findings in nature research and his mathematical genius made him a famous scholar. His thoughts, which were a mixture of mysticism and empiricism, made Bacon one of the preparers of the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance.