Late Period of Scholastic Philosophy, Late PeriodDecember 22, 2019
In the last period of scholasticism, philosophy will become more autonomous and separate from religion, and the effort to unify reason and faith will be abandoned. The conceptual realism seen in the beginning and ascension period declined in this period.
Nominalism will have a decisive role in this development and in the autonomy of philosophy. In addition, the deepening of the conflict between the Dominican and Franciscan orders deepened this process. The Franciscans have always objected to the separation or interconnection of theology and natural sciences. The end of these discussions prepared the reform. In this sense, cultural developments that prepare the Renaissance take place in the last period of scholastics: Reformation and the dissolution and development of natural sciences.
Johannes Duns Scottus should be mentioned as the first name of this period. In his thinking, universal concepts are reflections of the objective world. He has also given priority to will and advocated volantarism. He brought the idea of freedom of will to indeterminacy.
William of Ockham is not only the major philosopher of late scholastics, but also plays a decisive role in the systematization and development of nominalism. According to him, all truth is composed of particular objects, universals are fabricated things.
The universals are the symbols we make up for objects, based on the general similarities of particular objects. The basis of knowledge is experimented in this way. Since we have no experience of God and eternity, knowledge of these fields is knowledge of faith. Such information cannot be called real information, but it can be believed. Thus, a clear distinction is made between belief and knowledge. Development in this direction will create the Renaissance.
Roger Bacon is another name for late scholastic. The concepts of experimentation and experience become even more precise in his approach. His findings and his genius in mathematics made him a famous scholar. His ideas, a mixture of mysticism and empiricism, made Bacon one of the preparers of the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance.