Libertarianism, What is Libertarianism?June 28, 2021
Libertarianism corresponds to the emphasis on individual freedom, voluntary cooperation, freedom of expression and action in political philosophy.
Although there is no consensus on a precise definition of libertarianism, it generally refers to a society with a small-scale government or pro-government society today.
According to the understanding of libertarianism, human actions do not occur according to some rules. Since there are no rules that determine human actions, man is free. Therefore, man is responsible for his actions. Advocates of this understanding wanted to maximize freedoms by arguing that the state should be reduced as much as possible and moral restrictions should not be placed on people.
LIBERTERIAN SCHOOLS: MINARCHISM AND ANARCHISM
It can be said that there are various approaches to the benefit or harm of the state among libertarian schools; Some argue that the state is necessary, while others argue that the existence of the state is unnecessary.
Anarchist schools advocate the complete destruction of the state. Minarchist schools advocate a state limited to aggression, theft, breach of contract, fraud, and protecting its citizens. Some schools support public aid for poor individuals.
Apart from these, some schools reject private ownership and support common ownership. Thus another distinction can be made between Libertarians who support private ownership or support common ownership of the means of production. The first part supports a capitalist and the second a socialist economic system.
In many countries, the words “libertarian” and “libertarianism” are synonymous with left anarchism, as advocated by political academics Noam Chomsky.
SUBJECTS OF LIBERTERIAN PHILOSOPHY
Libertarian philosophies generally focus on three key issues: determining which actions are moral, legitimacy of private property, and legitimacy of the state.
Although generally considered under the same concept, libertarian thinkers should not be thought of as a whole or group that often agrees. Because there are very important differences between these thinkers. Even the views of any two of these philosophers are not the same.
Nevertheless, all of these thinkers are called libertarian supporters because they generally have a common denominator that rejects restrictions on all areas of life and bases freedom.
Supporters of libertarianism oppose statism, nationalism, in short, many ideologies that limit the individual. He argues that each person owns his own life and no one can own the life of any other person, and as a result of this situation, each person will have the freedom to act in accordance with his own choices, and that he cannot violate the freedom of other people to act in accordance with his own choices to the same extent.
No one is the master or slave of another. A person who is an instrument of someone else or something has no opportunity to direct his own life. The only person who will decide how to lead his life is the individual himself.
If the human being is tried to be defined not as a value on its own, but based on any power, authority or person, it is not possible to save the human being from being a slave.
According to the political philosophy called libertarianism, each person is the owner of his own life. No one has the right to dispose of another’s life. People decide how to live according to their own free will.
No one has the right to be the master of anyone, and no one has the right to enslave anyone. Other people’s lives are not for you to put an end to or take advantage of.
LIBERTERIAN STATE UNDERSTANDING
Libertarians are against the state, but later split into two: libertarian socialists and free market libertarians.
The state is the most dangerous institution known to man. The only duty of the state is to protect people from the attacks of others by guaranteeing human rights. The basic human rights that must be protected by the state are the right to life, the right to liberty and the right to property.
Free market libertarians are against the state, but unlike voluntarists, who are totally against the state, minarchists argue that a minimal state is needed to protect property and operate the legal system.
Many of the other functions of government are dropped, such as public schools, the duty to provide welfare, regulating workplace safety and environmental pollution through laws and controls. All this must be driven by the market.
Free market libertarians rely on the market to solve many problems, such as the issue of unemployment. For example, without setting a minimum wage, some entrepreneurs state that they can provide jobs to most of the currently unemployed and they see it as profitable. Helpers will help those still in need.
Libertarian socialists are on the political, economic, and social hierarchy.