Logic and Language ProblemJune 26, 2021
“Superfiction sets the earth on fire, philosophy puts out the flames.”
Reasoning is based on establishing the truth of statements that can then be used to construct a set of ideas that will lead us to a conclusion.
This may seem obvious to us today, but the idea of constructing a rational debate separated philosophy from the superstitious and religious explanations that existed before the early philosophers. These thinkers needed to develop a tool to ensure the validity of their ideas. From their thoughts, logic emerged as a reasoning technique that gradually developed over time.
He developed logic, rules, and conventions that were previously only a useful tool for analyzing the coherence of an argument, and soon became a field in its own right as another branch of increasingly expanding philosophical topics.
Logic and Science Connection
Like much of philosophy, logic has close ties to science, and especially to mathematics. The basic structure of a logical argument is the same as that of a mathematical proof, which starts from a proposition and goes through a series of steps. Therefore, it is not surprising that philosophers turn to mathematics for obvious, undeniable examples, or that most of the great thinkers, from Pythagoras to Rene Descartes and Gottfried Leibniz, are also successful mathematicians.
Although logic appears to be the most precise and “scientific” branch of philosophy, a field where everything is right or wrong, a closer look reveals that it is not that simple.
Advances in mathematics in the 19th century questioned the accuracy of the rules of logic determined by Aristotle, but even in ancient times, the famous paradoxes of Zeno of Elea reached absurd conclusions from seemingly infallible arguments.
Much of the problem consists in the fact that philosophical logic, unlike mathematics, is expressed in words instead of numbers and symbols, and is open to the innate ambiguities and phrasing of language.
Building a logical argument requires using language carefully and correctly, testing our statements and arguments to make sure they mean what we think, and analyzing not only the chain of reasoning they go through if we’re working on other people’s arguments, but also the language they use and the consistency of their conclusions.
From this process, a new branch of philosophy that flourished in the 20th century, the philosophy of language, which explores terms and their meanings, emerged.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer Yıldırım