Logic and Language ProblemDecember 21, 2019
“Superstitions set the earth on fire, and philosophy extinguished the flames.” Voltaire
Reasoning is based on the determination of the truth of expressions which can then be used to construct a series of ideas that will lead us to the conclusion. This may seem obvious to us today, but the idea of constructing a rational debate distinguished philosophy from superstitions and religious explanations that existed before the first philosophers. These thinkers had to develop a tool to ensure the validity of their ideas. From their thoughts, logic was born as a reasoning technique that gradually developed over time .
At first, he developed logic, rules and order, which was a useful tool for analyzing the consistency of a discussion only, and soon became a field of his own as another branch of the ever-expanding philosophy issues.
Like most of philosophy, logic has close ties to science, especially mathematics. The basic structure of a logical argument is the same as that of mathematical proof, which comes from a proposition and passes through a series of steps. Therefore, there is no surprise that philosophers resort to mathematics for obvious, undeniable examples, or that many of the great thinkers from Pythagoras to Rene Descartes and Gottfried Leibniz are also successful mathematicians.
Although logic, the most precise and “scientific” branch of philosophy, appears to be an area where everything is right or wrong, a close look at the subject shows that it is not that simple. Advances in mathematics in the nineteenth century questioned the accuracy of Aristotle’s rules of logic , but even in ancient times Zenon’s famous paradoxes came to nonsensical arguments that seemed to be error-free.
Much of the problem is that philosophical logic, unlike mathematics, is expressed in words instead of numbers and symbols, and is open to innate incomprehensibility and narration disorders in language. Building a logical argument requires careful and correct use of language, testing our statements and arguments to ensure that they mean what we think, and analyzing not only the chain of logic they have passed, but the consistency of their conclusions and conclusions, if we are working on others’ arguments.
From this process, a new branch of philosophy emerged in the 20th century, and the philosophy of language, which explores terms and meanings, emerged.