Marriage, Divorce and Continuity of the FamilyJuly 2, 2021
The family is the smallest social institution consisting of adults of both sexes and their children. In connection with the structure of the society in which they live, parents contribute to the socialization of the child before school. In this process, the child internalizes the culture of the society and the roles of mother and father in connection with the roles of women and men. As in all societies, the family is one of the most important institutions in Turkey. Family members have high social and economic expectations from each other. The most important indicator revealing the importance of the family and the high expectations in Turkey is that 55.0% of individuals prefer to stay with their children in old age. Again, according to the same study, the rate of those who said they would go to a nursing home was given as 9.3%. According to the Life Satisfaction Survey carried out by the Turkish Statistical Institute between 2004 and 2008, the people who are the source of happiness for individuals in Turkey are the whole family to a significant extent.
Looking at the contemporary family sociology literature, the perspective that the family is a universal and functional institution has affected the family sociology discipline of both developed and developing countries. Although the criticisms against this view are also very important, the long-term dominance of the structuralist-functionalist theory in American sociology has led to the acceptance of this view in general social science.
G. P. Murdock, in his study named “Social Structure”, examined the family institution in different societies and concluded that the family is a universal institution (Haralambos, 1980, p.325). Emphasizing the importance of the family in a society and saying it is a universal institution are different from each other. According to the idea that the family is universal, the family has existed and continues to exist in all societies (Ecevit, 1991, p.1).
The family consists of adults of both sexes, and the sexual union of these adults under the family umbrella is socially approved. There is one or more children in the family. These children can be their own or they can be adopted. Again, the family works economically and collects their earnings in a common pool and consumes them according to the needs of the family (Haralambos, 1980, p.326).
The classic and important example given against Murdock’s view of the universal family is the families living in Kibbutz in Israel. Kibbutz settlements are shown as important examples in the field of agriculture today.
In modern societies, although marriage has partially lost its prestige and meaning in traditional societies, it is still seen as the only legitimate form of relationship by a significant part of people and is accepted as the founding element of the family. This situation places marriage at the center of the interests of sociologists. In addition, the differences between traditional and modern forms of marriage, new relationships resulting from this, and rapidly increasing divorce rates make marriage a sociological problem that needs to be examined.
When it comes to the sociological analysis of the family institution, there is no doubt that two important facts that should be emphasized are marriage and divorce. Societies have always tended to regulate sexual relations between adult women and men. They have made some legal arrangements in this direction. For example, a marriage contract called marriage is such a legal arrangement. In general, we call marriage the stereotyped relationship that regulates the relations between the sexes in a society and determines which relationship is legitimate.
Married couples form a wide network of relationships with their parents, brothers and sisters, and other blood relatives. In this way, they have to assume great responsibilities within a wide circle of social relations. The expectations of the society from a single person and the expectations of a married couple are very different from each other. Especially in traditional societies where kinship ties are strong, the responsibility placed on married couples is quite high. For example, in Turkish society, fulfilling many social responsibilities (participating in a wedding, regular visits, etc.) is expected from families at first hand. Marriage is important not only as a way of participating in social life, but also in terms of meeting the basic biological and psychological needs of married couples through legitimate means. Many people consider the marriage life of children, together with a warm home and a lifelong sense of togetherness, indispensable for a healthy society.
– Marriage is a universal phenomenon seen in all societies, but the rituals of marriage differ from society to society.
Marriage is a form of relationship that has emerged in various forms as determined by cultural and legal norms in history. It is established and lasts according to certain rules and traditions. Society and laws do not accept marriages that do not occur within the framework of certain rules. Every society has determined marriage with its own various norms in order to add an institutional value to the family. These norms are customary