Marxism, What is Marxism?

Marxism, What is Marxism?

July 2, 2021 Off By Felso

Marxism, or Marxism, is the doctrine of philosophy, society and economics in line with “scientific socialism” developed by the great German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Marxism; It can also be defined as an original understanding of political philosophy, an economic and social worldview that interprets history with dialectical materialism, an analysis of capitalism, a theory of social change, or a system of thought about human emancipation.

Marxism; As a doctrine, it is a product of political, economic and philosophical eclecticism. In this context, Marxism is defined as a doctrine that put forward the theory of class conflicts in the ideological sense and sees the dictatorship of the proletariat as a necessary consequence of this conflict, and predicts that communism, which they accept as a world of social equality and freedom, will be reached from there.


Marxism is a universal, all-encompassing philosophy, a system of philosophy. On the one hand, this philosophy is based on dialectical materialism, which is understood by the word philosophy in the West today, which examines the field of philosophical problems, which includes disciplines such as theory of knowledge, ontology and philosophy of science, and on the other hand, historical materialism, which means a philosophy of history and a philosophy of society.

Marxist philosophy takes its universal character from these two origins. In this universal sense, we can talk about a Marxist theory of knowledge, a Marxist understanding of being, a Marxist understanding of science, a Marxist ethics and aesthetics, as well as a Marxist understanding of history, society and law, a Marxist understanding of economy and life.

Marxism is named after Karl Marx.

Within this framework of thought, Marxist theory goes back to the last century and to two German thinkers who lived in the last century, Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895). Finding its source and main philosophical content in these two thinkers, Marxism became the basic and official philosophy of a society in the first quarter of our century with the contributions of Vladimir Ilic Lenin (1870-1924). Especially after the Second World War, it gained dominance as a great philosophy with an official and orthodox character that gave basic categories of thinking, seeing and even hearing to large human societies living on a certain part of the world. When we look at the history of thinking, we do not see that any philosophy has been adopted by such masses and continuously.

However, today, the various nations living in the lands from the middle of Europe to the Pacific coasts of Asia have only one official philosophy that they willingly or unwillingly accept: Marxism. Millions of people living in all these countries have certain categories of thinking: Marxist principles. There are certain values ​​that determine all these people’s conversations about society and history, man and life: Marxist concepts and Marxist rules. With all these qualities and features, Marxism is the most widespread philosophy of our time. Whether we like this philosophy or not, whether we adopt it or not, an intellectual who needs to know the ideas and values ​​of his age is expected to learn it.

Marxists call their philosophy dialectical materialism. The basis of Marxism is the view that the historical and social development of humanity is determined by economic forces and relations, and the spiritual forces related to thought are a reflection of these. Economic relations and related spiritual forms are connected with culture, infrastructure and superstructure, they are in a causal dependence with each other. The basic principle of Marxism in terms of philosophy is this: the consciousness of man does not determine his existence, but on the contrary, his social existence determines his consciousness.

Thought and consciousness are products of the human brain, man himself is a product of nature, develops in and with his environment; human society, along with its culture, is a part of nature; human history also develops in a cause-effect connection and dialectically. The universe is not a finished thing, but a progressing process; Dialectic, according to Marx, is the science on the general law of motion both in the external world and in human thought – this motion is the mode of existence of matter.

The dialectical change of Hegel that progressed in oppositions was translated into the war of classes in Marx. The doctrine of class warfare also finds its footing in Darwin’s teaching. Marx transferred the struggle for survival in nature to human societies as well. Scientific socialism also eventually takes the form of a natural science.

Moral Understanding of Marxism