Mechanism, What is Mechanism?July 2, 2021
Mechanism or Mechanism is a current of ideas that tries to explain all the events in the universe with mechanical reasons. Mechanism explains all events and phenomena with motion and laws of motion. In addition to the physical events and phenomena developed by the physical existence for the mechanism, all the events and phenomena in the world of living things are also explained with pure movement.
Leucippus and Democritus, known as “Thinkers of Abdera” in ancient Greek thought, saw nature in a sense of causality formed by quantitative differentiations. Air, water etc. They distinguished and differentiated atomic forms, such as atoms, by their size and smallness, in other words, their quantities.
To them, the universe was a conglomerate of atoms moving by bumping and repelling each other, from the infinite past to the infinite future. Everything was in the necessary order of this displacement motion (mechanical motion) by impact and thrust. There was no such thing as non-existence and non-existence, everything consisted of material atoms united (birth) and separated (death) by this movement of impact and repulsion, this formation was eternal and primordial.
HISTORY OF MECHANISM
Mechanism first grounded its antecedent ideas within the framework of Democritus’ understanding of atomic matter. In the explanation Democritus brought to the problem of motion, atoms were initially thought of as main entities moving on their own.
Afterwards, Democritus tried to explain the movement of these fundamental entities, namely atoms, and therefore their place in space in relation to their weights. As a result of the collisions, coming together and disintegration of atoms by these movements, formation takes place.
There is a materialist point of view in the understanding of Democritus. However, it would not be correct to say that there is a materialist approach in all mechanistic understandings. So much so that in different religious understandings, the mechanism shows God as the first mover.
For example, Thomas of Aquino is the first mover at the source of the existing movement in the understanding of being developed with the influence of Aristotle; It presupposes God. The cause that initiates being here is God.
It is possible to find non-materialist mechanistic understandings in non-religious views as well. While Western thought began to get rid of the influence of the Middle Ages and to open up to the Renaissance, it took important steps especially in natural sciences.
In the Renaissance, which has adopted the principle of researching nature in the understanding of nature, mechanism has also been one of the explanations that have been adopted with importance. To illustrate, for Galileo, one of the most typical representatives of the understanding of nature in the Renaissance, the important thing is not the qualities but the measurable quantities.
Knowing a natural phenomenon is separating it into measurable elements, then expressing it with mathematical formulas. Natural science studies only the work of quantity and, in this context, movement. Because nature is a moving whole and it is the states of this movement that are expressed in mathematical formulas.
It is the movement that dominates nature. So basic science has to be mechanics. For this reason, the most basic science of universe explanations in the Renaissance was mechanics.
Democritus is the father of the atomist understanding of matter.
MECHANISM AND MATERIAL ATOMMUNITY
The universe was flowing in an uninterrupted and continuous chain of causality. The soul, all sense perceptions, all thinking consisted of material atoms. Atoms were rough, flat, angular, wheel, round, crooked, hook, hook-shaped, and they were innumerable.
They were indivisible (atoms) and indivisible. “Atoms are separated from each other in infinite space; Different from each other in terms of shape, size, stance and arrangement, they drift in space, collide by coming on top of each other. While some of them were thrown away from each other, another part remained intertwined with each other according to the symmetry of forms, sizes, postures and alignments.
In these materialist atomic teachings of Abdera thinkers, the universe is explained by mechanical motion. This mechanical motion necessarily creates a causal chain, the multiplier is the cause and the effect multiplied by it. (push and being pushed).
This chain of causality also necessarily requires a discontinuity, that is, continuity; what is struck by itself will be the cause of it and produce a result, by striking another, this percussive motion must thus go on without any interruption.
In short, mechanism is the understanding of explaining the universe with a constant movement of displacement, in which all phenomena are connected by a chain of causality. This is to see the giver in a machine order, a machine operating according to the laws of nature multiplication. The motion matter is not a force it contains, it is given to it from outside; Therefore, the stages of formation do not overlap each other, they are arranged side by side. So all changes in nature are mechanical, not dialectical.
Although this mechanistic explanation does not recognize any element in nature other than matter, it is an idealist explanation. Cause-effect sequence sequenced by mechanical action z