Modern Logic in Contemporary PhilosophyJune 28, 2021
In modern logic, propositions are represented in a formal language.
Formal language consists of only strings of signs. A formal string is obtained by adding the conversion rules between strings to this formal language. The signs and sequences of signs in question are not taken into account what they signify or mean. In this respect, ambiguities arising from everyday language, ambiguities due to emphasis or intonation are almost completely overcome.
Modern logic enables us to symbolize both propositions and propositional joints and the internal structures of propositions quite clearly, and thus to analyze the semantic relations between propositions without any problems. In a way, the formal systems created in modern logic are an example of the universal language, characteristica universalis, that Gottfried Leibniz (1646 – 1716) once dreamed of.
Bertrand Russell, who made a great contribution to the establishment and development of analytical philosophy, successfully expressed the results of modern logic up to that point in his work called Principia Mathematica, which he wrote together with Alfred North Whitehead between 1910 and 1913.
It is an expected result that a logic that has developed to this extent and has a high representative power has opened new horizons for philosophy. In the approach presented here, the ambiguities and uncertainties of everyday language are criticized. A logically perfect language that is free from these problems should be pursued. However, the issue is not just the establishment of such a perfect language. Perhaps, because of the problems it contains, everyday language presents us with some philosophical problems unknowingly. When we remove these problems from language itself, perhaps we will be able to get rid of these philosophical problems.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook