Modern Logic in Contemporary PhilosophyDecember 24, 2019
In modern logic, propositions are represented in a formal language.
Formal language consists of only sign sequences. A formal string is obtained by adding conversion rules between signal strings in that formal language. They do not take into account what they refer to or what they mean. In this way, the ambiguities arising from everyday language, the uncertainties due to emphasis or intonation are almost completely overcome.
Modern logic allows us to very clearly symbolize both the propositions and propositional joints, as well as the internal structures of propositions, and thus to analyze the semantic relations between propositions without problems. In a sense, formal systems created in modern logic are examples of the universal language, characteristica universalis , which Gottfried Leibniz (1646 – 1716) once dreamed of.
Bertrand Russell , who contributed greatly to the establishment and development of analytical philosophy , successfully described the results achieved by modern logic in his Principia Mathematica, which he wrote with Alfred North Whitehead between 1910 and 1913.
It is also to be expected that a logic that has developed to this extent and which has high representation power has opened up new horizons in front of philosophy. In the approach presented here, the ambiguities and uncertainties of everyday language are criticized. A logical perfect language must be pursued free of these problems. However, it is not only about establishing such a perfect language. Perhaps everyday language raises some philosophical problems because of the problems it contains. When we remove these problems from the language itself, we may be able to get rid of these philosophical problems.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook