Moral Understandings of Some PhilosophersJune 28, 2021
According to him, the criterion of true knowledge is intuition.
One can only grasp what is good and what is bad with intuition.
If a person acts in accordance with his inner intuition (such as whether to help the poor or not), he will have done the good, the moral thing.
The criterion of good and evil is utility.
Happiness, which is the measure of good, is not only the happiness of the one who acts, but the happiness of everyone involved.
Mill adopts the principle of being able to give the highest happiness to a large number of people.
Thus, accepting the existence of the universal moral law, Mill bases it on a subjective principle such as happiness.
He is of the opinion that what is valuable in life is pleasure.
For him, the supreme pleasure is the one that brings the highest benefit to as many people as possible.
According to this understanding, a person should not only consider his own pleasure or happiness, but also the benefit and happiness of other people with whom he lives.
Therefore, what is beneficial for all, not for man alone, should be accepted as law.
There are a number of basic norms and values that determine human actions.
The source of these values is not human.
In the light of these values, the mind should decide how a person will act.
Whether an action is good or bad depends on whether it is in accordance with the “Idea of Good”.
The highest aim of man is to reach the idea of Good.
According to Aristotle, one must avoid extremes and choose the middle path in order to reach happiness.
He must choose courage, which is the middle way between recklessness and cowardice, and generosity, which is the middle way between extravagance and stinginess.
According to Spinoza, the universe is divided into “Macro Cosmos” and “Micro Cosmos”.
These two universes, which were one in the beginning, were separated from the possible captive face of human emotions and passions.
What is good and what is bad is obvious and hidden in the nature of the Macro Cosmos.
Man should be freed from being a prisoner of his feelings and passions and return to the nature of the “Macro Cosmos” and have these principles.
According to Kant, the aim of moral action should be “duty”, not happiness.
Homework is not asking for the good. It doesn’t matter if this happens or not.
According to him, an action is moral if it is performed out of a sense of “duty”.
According to Kant, the principle behind an action is more important than the action itself and its result.
The principle of “Act in such a way that the principle on which you measure your action may become a general law for all people” reveals his universal moral understanding.
It is universal and absolute, as people set their moral laws in such a way that they apply to all people.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer Yıldırım