Movements of Islamic Philosophy, Schools in Islamic Philosophy

Movements of Islamic Philosophy, Schools in Islamic Philosophy

December 22, 2019 0 By Felso

The schools and movements in which Islamic thought was first met among Greek philosophy schools were  Neo Platonicism ,  Neo Pythagoreanism  and Hermetic philosophy of religion. The recognition of Aristotle’s philosophy will take place after about a century.

After Aristotle and Aristotle, Aristotle and the current stage of the current stage of this system and his system of logic does not have anything to do with any connection, they were more interested in theology, natural sciences and mathematics. Therefore, before Aristotle, Islamic thought recognized the hermetic, gnostic and mystical currents of Greek philosophy; Aristotle had to wait for the Caliph Me’mun period to get to know the logic and philosophy. As a matter of fact, according to Jabirî’s quotation, Ibn al-Nedim al-Fihrist includes an anecdote as follows: She dreamed of a white-skinned, broad-faced, adjacent eyebrowed, hairless, hazel-eyed, physically old man with a slight redness. Old man, He was sitting on Me’mun’s bed. Me’mun says: ken I felt crushed before him in his presence and said, ‘Who are you?’ I asked. He said: ‘I am Aristotle’. I’m very happy and said, “O philosopher, may I ask you a question?” “Ask“. “What is Hüsn (beauty: goodness)? Um I asked. Iyi Good and beautiful in mind, ”he said. “Then what is it? Um I asked. “Fieriatta is good and beautiful” he said. When I asked,? What then? ”He said, andır It is good and beautiful among the majority.. When I said, “What then?” He said,, Then, then there is none. Sonra This dream had a major role in translating Aristotle’s books. Me’mun corresponded with the Roman emperor. After this dream, he asked him for help and asked him to send a collection of the books of ancient sciences of Rome. After a while the Roman emperor hesitated to fulfill his request.

The dialogue on the side, which is said to have occurred in Me’mun’s dream, evokes an event that takes place in a famous hadith. Hz. Along with the Prophet’s companions, the angel of revelation, Jebrail, who was dressed as a human, came to the answers of the questions he asked and went. The Prophet turned to his friends and said: “This was Jabrail. He came to teach you about your religion. ”With this dream, on the one hand, the legitimacy of translating books of foreign cultures using the means of the state is given; on the other hand, it was emphasized that religion and philosophy express the same truth, even though there is a difference between methods and styles. Because the reason shown in this event as the source of goodness is one of the proofs of the religion ediliy-i şer’iyy / religion, sharia, Sharia Book and Sunnah. the majority corresponds to icma. (Rock, 1995: 311)

Unlike theology and mysticism that emerged as the result of the internal dynamics of Islamic society, philosophy was based on the legacy of Ancient and Hellenistic thought. On the other hand, in the advent of the Islamic world for nearly five hundred years, philosophy has reached specific results in terms of both ontological and theological, epistemological and ethical problems. Consequently, many new schools of philosophy have emerged. Although philosophy in the history of Islamic thought comes to mind, the philosophical accumulation produced by philosophers raised in the Islamic geography from Kindi to Ibn Rushd comes to mind.

VIII. The philosophy movement that began with the first Islamic philosopher Kindi, who was a member of the Beytülhikme cadre where the translation activity, which enabled the translation of science and thought products from Greek, Syriac, Persian and Sanskrit into Arabic for three centuries since the XIIIth century, began with the philosophy movement KIII. Dehriyye, which was represented by Ibn’r -Râvendî during this period  ; Tabiyiyye systemized by Jabir ibn Hayyân and Abu Bakr Zekeriyya Râzî  ; Kind, FarabI, such as the famous philosophers Avicenna and Averroes represented  Meşşâiyy A ; İhvân-ı Safâ , who put forward his thoughts in the encyclopedic Resâil in the X. century  ; Ishakiriyya founded by Shihabuddin Suhrawardi  and independent thinkers and scientists who were not members of any of these schools.

Although we will consider each of these streams individually as subheadings, it is possible to summarize them as follows:

– Naturalists: It is the opinion that derives the mind from experience and advocates that knowledge is acquired through sensations. This view shows a deist approach that does not accept the mediation between God and man. Razi is one of the important representatives.

. Dehriyyûn (Maddeciler): The only thing that is real is matter, and it is eternal and eternal view. Therefore, these current philosophers do not accept the existence of God. İbnü’r Râvendi is one of the important representatives.

– Bâtınîlik: It is an opinion that derives hidden meanings from the letters and words of the holy books rather than what is seen. Ibn Meymûn is one of the important representatives.

– Mashshadism: A philosophical approach based on logic and mathematics, which is mainly based on Aristotle and partly including Plato philosophy. Defends reason-based belief.  Philosophers such as al-Kindi , Farabi and  Ibn Rushd are important representatives.

– Ischacism: It is the opinion that the knowledge based on mystical experience will not give truth based on logic. Ishraqah means the spread of light by rising sun. He argues that spiritual intuition also illuminates the human being, as the sun brings things from darkness to light. Şahabettin Sühreverdi is one of the important representatives.

– Ikhwan Safa: It is a society that tries to gather all the sciences in one place by creating an encyclopedia of thoughts in various fields. The philosophers of Ikhwan Safa think that man should live in accordance with the divine laws and virtue. They are also known as Islamic encyclopedians.

With the rapid development and spread of Islam in the 1st century, the interaction of Muslims with foreign cultures has increased. The importance and freedom of Islam brought to mind the rapid expansion of the existing philosophical accumulation in these new cultures among Muslim scholars. It can be said that Muslim Arabs, who have not yet developed a systematic philosophy culture, have become more passive and influenced by their first acquaintance with Greek philosophy.

Although the schools of this new philosophy in a different culture tried not to move away from Islamic fundamental principles, Greek philosophy was effective and various schools that contradicted the basic principles emerged. But these schools are minority according to the schools that accept Islamic principles. Islamic philosophers  have embraced the views of such philosophers as Plato  and  Aristotle in Greek philosophy  and combined this with Islamic thought. Generally, the Second Teacher who established this system is   also called abi Farabi denilen. After Farabi , the Islamic understanding of God and rationalism combined with other Islamic philosophers.

Islamic philosophy and kalam walked together for a while. Afterwards, important differences of opinion emerged between the school of philosophy and the Kalam School in general and had a distinctive place in Islamic sciences from philosophy. There are differences of opinion between the school of philosophy and theology of Kalam on economic issues. Although the ideas of these two different groups are on a wise basis than other groups and sects, they are closer to classical religious creed and transplant than to theological philosophy. Islamic philosophers and philosophical schools, on the other hand, rely more on reason in religious matters, and prefer mind in places where reason and transplant conflict, and often tend to transfer.

They differ in their philosophical approaches and many aspects, especially in their view of religion. But all the schools, except for the materialists, are very close to the principles of Islamic monotheism. These schools in general, God, spirit, revelation, prophet, holy book and so on. accept religious beings and concepts.

In addition, there are many important philosophers and philosophers in the history of Islamic Philosophy that have not established a school and are not affiliated with a school, for example Ibn Khaldun and his philosophy of history.

The Schools of Islamic Philosophy are:

–  definition of Dehriyye
–  definition of Meşşâiyye
–  definition of İşrâkiyye
–  definition of Tabiyiyye
–  definition of İhvân-ı Safâ

In summary;

Unlike theology and Sufism, which emerged as a result of the internal dynamics of Islamic society, philosophy was based on the legacy of Ancient and Hellenistic thought. On the other hand, in the advent of the Islamic world for nearly five hundred years, philosophy has reached specific results in terms of both ontological and theological, epistemological and ethical problems. Consequently, many new schools of philosophy have emerged. The philosophical movement that began with the first Islamic philosopher Kindî XIII. century, during this time Dehriyye, Tabiyiyya, Meşşâiyye, İhvân-ı Safâ and Israkiiyye schools emerged, as well as independent schools and scientists who do not belong to any of these schools grew up.

Prepared by:  Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source:  Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook