New Ontology and the Problem of Being in 20th Century PhilosophyDecember 25, 2019
Philosophers, especially throughout history, wanted to base the thoughts produced on man and the universe on a certain basis.
These orientations have enabled them to handle information in a system that is consistent. It is possible to see this systematic thinking in other areas as well. The events and developments in science in the 20th century have forced the thinkers to look for methods in order to systematically process thought and be productive in the future.
Hartman says that the most problematic situations in philosophy are metaphysical issues. He states that the method sought for the solution of these problems is based on logic in the history of philosophy and that this path was tried from Aristotle to the New Kantians. He argues that the opinion based on the logic method creates problems in terms of overlap with the truth. It draws attention to the fact that not every logically correct situation will always give the truth.
He sees the work of logic-based methods as weak in philosophy. He thinks that a system should be gained to philosophy through a field that provides information for him. Stating that the nature of knowledge should be known, Hartman argues that ontology (the science of being) is absolutely needed in this way and that categorical relations between beings should be examined.
It tries to analyze the structure and functioning of beings and explain it through experimental field. Hartman considers existence as material and spiritual in this way. According to him, being is composed of matter and spirit. The most important aspect of the soul is thinking, and although the formation of knowledge requires a thinking subject, the share of the thought being should not be forgotten. Therefore, Hartman argues that in every branch of knowledge (philosophy, art, sociology, law, etc.), those who are engaged in that field of knowledge (philosopher, artist, sociologist, lawyer, etc.) should recognize the existence of their own work. Stating that this is a method work, Hartman argues that the new ontology is to meet this need.
Hartman’s method is generally constructed with an epistemology reduced to ontology. It involves examining the relationship between all assets in order to understand various assets. In this respect, Hartman states that there are basically four layers among beings.
Hartmann’s Asset Layers
– Spiritual Layer
Human, thought, freedom, culture, religion, morality and arts. Tin or mind is used effectively. Spiritual experiences turn into products and become universal. Freedom towards this layer increases, strength decreases. This layer deals with philosophy.
– Spiritual Layer
There are people and animals. Though not entirely conscious, they are conscious and spiritual experiences. This layer welds the spiritual layer. This layer deals with the science of psychology.
– Organic Layer
Living beings, unicellular organisms, plants, animals and humans. Intuition is used effectively. This layer provides welding from the inorganic layer. This layer deals with biology.
– Inorganic Layer
inanimate beings and matter. Perception is used effectively. The assets in this layer have floor covering, heating and falling properties. This layer deals with physics.
These layers are formed as a result of the separation of assets in terms of quality. According to Hartmann, this is a categorical separation and does not mean that they are completely separate from each other.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook