Peripatetics, Peripatos School, Lykeion SchoolJune 26, 2021
The Peripatos School is the name of the school of philosophy founded by the great Greek philosopher Aristotle. The students or representatives of this school were called Peripatetics. The school is also known as the Lykeion, and it got this name because it was founded next to the Apollon Lykeion Temple.
Although this school was named Lykeion as a tribute to the name of the city in which it was founded, the school was later named Peripatos School. Lykeion is also the origin of the word “High School” used today. The school of the Peripatetics was named Peripatos School because of the fact that the lessons and scientific discussions at the school were conducted by walking around the shaded and wooded roads of the school.
Peripatetics, also to the names that survived as the interpreter of Aristotle in Ancient Greek thought; Philosophers and thinkers working on Aristotelian philosophy in the framework of Islamic philosophy; In medieval Europe, it is a name given to philosophers who shape their philosophies with the influence of Aristotle, especially in the 13th century and after the 14th century.
The Peripatos School, which continued its education and training after Aristotle’s death, continued its existence for centuries, just like Plato’s Akademia.
Aristotle marks a turning point in the development of Greek science and philosophy. In this context, the Peripatos School, thanks to its studies in various directions, formed the basis of research in the field of “disciplines”.
In the Peripatos School, the Lykeion and walking paths, where the Peripatetics taught and watched, can be seen.
Until Aristotle, science and philosophy were fused together. Together with Aristotle, independent sciences separated from philosophy, which was a general science until then, and developed as a “specialty branch”. This development reached its highest point not in Athens but in Alexandria.
Towards the end of the First Age, Alexandria became the center of scientific research. The aid and contributions of the Egyptian ruler at that time eventually made a breakthrough in all sciences, but this was overdone. Expertise has gone to such extremes that in the end the “whole” is overlooked. After that, a lot of insignificant details hindered the scientific studies of the period.
FOUNDATION OF LYKEION
When Aristotle realized that he could not work under the management of Speusippos, who became the head of Akademeia after Plato, he had to leave the school and go to Assos, to Hermeias. Because Speusippos’ inclination was to transform philosophy into mathematics, and therefore Aristotle thought that he could not work with Speusippos.
Aristotle lived in Assos for three years and married Pythias, who was also Hermeias’ nephew and adopted son; but unfortunately Pythias did not live long. Aristotle later had a relationship with a woman from his hometown and had a son from her, whom he named “Nicomachus” and to whom he would dedicate his book, “Ethics to Nicomachus”.
After Assos, Aristotle went to Mitylene, off the island of Lesbos, to his friend from Akademeia and to the island’s native Theophrastos. While in Mitylene, he received an invitation from the Macedonian King Philippos.
The purpose of this invitation was the desire of Philippos’ son Alexander, who was 13 years old at that time, to hand over all his education to Aristotle. Aristotle, who sincerely believed that the rulers of the future should receive an education and training far above ordinary people, readily accepted this invitation.
Aristotle returned to Athens after the death of Philippos (334-335 BC) and in order to convey his teaching qualification, which he weighed with the lessons he gave to Alexander, this time to a wider student mass and to continue his research more comfortably, he was also a frequented by Socrates. He rented several buildings in the Lyceum (Greek Λύκειον: Lykeion) woodland near Athens, where he established his school, which he named the same.
Originally a gymnasion (sports field; sports school), the Lyceum is a sacred space dedicated to Apollo Lyceus (the god Apollo who killed wolves: Yun. lykos: wolf; lykeios: slayer of wolves) and dates back to BC. It got this name in the 6th century.
In the past, it was the training ground of Greek soldiers and athletes. The floor of this school is filled with the footprints of many philosophers, sophists and poets such as Prodicos of Keos, Protagoras, Socrates and Plato. In addition, before the Athenian Assembly building settled in its official place on the Pnyx hill, it gathered here, and the celebrations of the holidays dedicated to different gods were also held here.
Athenian parliament building on the Pnyx hill.
We do not have extensive information about the education of this school, which was founded by Aristotle as soon as he set foot in Athens and became the father of modern high schools.
However, according to the results we draw from both the content of Aristotle’s works and the statements of later researchers who studied these works in this respect, it is very clear that this place is a paradise of science, philosophy, politics, rhetoric and logic.