Phenomenology and Reality-Appearance in 20th Century PhilosophyDecember 25, 2019
18-19. The approach of philosophies to natural sciences in the 16th century and beyond has led to the loss of the search for truth and the value creation features in philosophy.
Natural sciences claim that they reveal the knowledge of the objects of the physical world. However, one does not experience the knowledge of natural sciences but his own experiences. One’s experiences are provided with consciousness directed towards objects. This consciousness realizes the knowledge of the essence of objects by means of phenomenological method , that is to find meaning. Finding or constructing meanings is the subjectivation of man. Being a subject also requires returning to consciousness. With the idea that m Consciousness is always the consciousness of something, H Husserl aims to reach the contents of consciousness, the knowledge of the essence of phenomena.
Phenomenology is the examination of the phenomenon , which is the exact equivalent of the word meaning . The phenomenon is treated as the subject of senses and the objects of the sensory field. Phenomena are not the object itself, but the form of the object that is the subject of the human mind. Through the senses of the mind, man experiences objects in his own perception.
Husserl creates a philosophical method with phenomenology. This method will provide access to the knowledge of the essence of phenomena and thus the analysis of consciousness. Since the essence of consciousness is orientation, research towards consciousness; it must be directed to what it contains, not to itself, to the phenomena it is directed to. Phenomenological method, in order to reach the essence of phenomena, is to move away from previously acquired information, prejudices and random features and to parenthetize this information. Husserl considers parenthesis necessary for the following three situations:
1. Parenthesis of history: Discrimination from prejudices and views formed by social life
2. Brackets about existence: Avoiding doubts as to whether the objects examined actually exist
3. Brackets related to “ideals sağlama: Ensuring that objects are free from features such as color and shape.
The essence of the phenomena will be achieved by parenthesing. For example, a person’s knowledge of the essence of the table is obtained by the phenomenological method of the table facing it. All the preliminary information about the table and the information formed in the person with the brackets of the color and shape of the table are the information about the essence of the table. This information is sez intuition of the essence ..
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook