Philosophy – Metaphysics RelationshipJune 26, 2021
Metaphysics is the name given to Aristotle’s book, which he calls “first philosophy”, in which he questions the “reasons and basic principles of existence”. Metaphysics, which literally means “beyond physics”, deals with the first and last problems of philosophy such as existence, god, soul, immortality, not the reality perceived by the senses.
It deals with “the actual existence of existence”, “first causes and principles”, “the structure and formation of the universe and nature”. It tries to answer questions such as “What is the soul?, “What are the relations between the soul and the body?, “Is the soul immortal? etc.
The main problems that metaphysics deals with; problems related to existence (ontology), problems related to the structure and formation of the universe (cosmology), problems related to god and spirit.
They are property related problems. What is existence actually? And what is its basis? It includes questions such as Looking at the answers to these questions, we can talk about two different views.
The view that argues that matter is the basis of existence is called materialism, and the view that argues that there is an idea (thought) is called idealism. According to the materialist view, there is no other reality apart from matter.
Thinking, design and spiritual events are also products of matter. The idealist view, on the other hand, places thought on the basis of existence and denies a world of objects independent of thought.
Cosmos means universe. These problems are related to the structure and formation of the universe. There are three approaches to solving cosmological problems. These approaches are; It consists of mechanistic, teleological (teleological) and theological (theological) views of the universe.
According to the mechanistic view, everything that happens in the universe has occurred mechanically, depending on the principle of causality. The teleological view, on the other hand, argues that everything in the universe emerged according to a certain plan, and that all beings have a purpose to realize. “Teleology accepts that nature is organized according to a purpose, that the world is ordered according to a number of purposive reasons.”
One of the first representatives of this view, Anaxagoras (Anaksagoras, 500-428 BC) said, “Can a statue be formed by itself from some clay? Of course, it cannot be formed. Just as a sculptor is needed for slime to become a sculpture, a plan must be formed in this universe for the formation of an orderly universe. “There must be a conscious and effective force acting accordingly.” According to him, this power is God. According to Anaxagoras, however, this god is not the creator, but the builder.
The theological view, on the other hand, sees everything that exists in the universe as a result of the will of God. “It is the view that everything in the world is arranged by God to serve man, for human existence.” He argues that all beings in the universe are possible beings, that is, it is possible for them not to exist as well as to exist. He argues that the only being that cannot be thought of as non-existence is God, that God is a necessary being and that the universe can be explained accordingly.
Problems With God and Spirit
In addition to these problems, the existence of the soul, the soul-body relationship and the immortality of the soul are also discussed in metaphysics.
In general, metaphysics arises from questions that people ask and do not hesitate to ask, and at the same time cannot give a complete and definite answer. Today, people still want to know about the structure of the universe and whether there is an afterlife. This is why metaphysics has a continuity.
There have also been objections to metaphysics, which has always existed in the history of philosophy. The subjects of metaphysics consist of problems that cannot be perceived by the senses. There were also objections at this point. Some philosophers, who argue that something that cannot be perceived through the senses cannot be known, opposed metaphysics. This objection did not find sufficient support. Metaphysics still exists today.
Philosophy will exist as long as there are questions about existence, the place of man in the universe, and values.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer Yıldırım