Philosophy of Knowledge in the Age of EnlightenmentDecember 24, 2019
The development of science has changed the West’s view of knowledge. In the 17th century, the method of science was tried to be applied to philosophy and in the 18th century, the correct information illuminated by reason was sought.
In this respect, philosophers went to the knowledge and formed thoughts towards its nature. Questions such as bilmek What does it mean to know something? ”,“ What can one know? Bil and mı Is there a limit to knowledge? Uştur were asked. The philosophers of this period, united in the view that the right information is possible, are separated from each other in terms of the source of the information. The main problem with knowledge is what knowledge is and how one obtains it.
Discussions on knowledge are based on two main streams of philosophy, rationalism and empiricism. Rationalism states that knowledge is formed from a prior mind (independent of experience), while empiricism suggests that it occurs from a posterior (experience). 18th century trying to reconcile these two views. philosopher Kant, on the other hand, thinks that knowledge is formed by reason and experience. In this respect, the views of Descartes (17th century), the empiricist philosopher John Locke (17th-18th century) and Kant (18th century) who synthesize the two trends are important.
Descartes seeks clear information that can never be doubted and can be the basis for other information. When he reaches the premise that “I think, then I am. Akıl He comes to the mind as the source of certain information. According to him, knowledge is not realized by subsequent experiences but by principles of innate reason. He argues that the reason for the certainty of the knowledge of mathematics and geometry is based on reason, as the source of the correct information.
J. Locke opposes Descartes’ idea of innateism and states that knowledge is not born through, but through later experiences. He argues that man experiences some impressions from the external world outside his own mind through his sensory organs and that he obtains information by designing ideas made from these impressions in his mind. According to him, the human mind is a congenital empty plate (tabula rasa) and man fills this empty plate with his knowledge through his experiences.
Kant states that he does not doubt that all information begins with experience, and that this does not lead to the conclusion that all knowledge of man is derived from experience. It is based on the idea that sensory data is raw and that there must be a mind that processes this raw data. Kant thinks that knowledge is formed by using experience and reason together. According to him, man receives data from outside through his senses and processes them in the forms of the mind to form information.
Kant states that ısız Perceptions are empty, and perceptions are blind. Olmadan Without sensory data, the concepts that exist in mind are empty, and the mind trying to understand only on the basis of them is blind. He proposes a new way of combining rationalism and empiricism with regard to the source of knowledge, with the view that human beings use both aspects of knowledge.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook, MEB Philosophy Textbook