Reasoning and Argumentation (Forms of Reasoning)

Reasoning and Argumentation (Forms of Reasoning)

June 26, 2021 Off By Felso

Thought proceeds step by step and draws a certain conclusion from certain propositions; that is, the process of arriving at a new proposition is called reasoning. Thus, from known propositions to unknowns are reached and a new proposition is put forward. Reasoning is the process of making new judgments based on judgments that are accepted as true in another and most general sense.

The claim on which a valid and reliable reasoning (or inference) is based and the judgment it contains must consist of logically consistent propositions. Otherwise, it will be impossible to reach a valid conclusion from the simplest ideas to the most complex. Therefore, the inference must meet the validity conditions.

Arguments consist of propositions and are based on or source for certain views above. The most common forms of reasoning are deduction, induction and analogy.


Opinion; It is a judgment, an idea, made on an event, being or thought. General opinion; It can be defined as a person’s developing an understanding of an event, entity or thought, making a judgment on this event, entity or thought, and producing an idea.

Developing understanding is the ability of a person to make sense of life and to explain the principles and rules of life. Education, living environment, beliefs, cultural and moral rules, etc. shaped by factors. These factors also allow people to develop their own unique perspectives. Different views cause the same events or situations to be perceived and interpreted in different ways. Opinions can be classified in various ways, such as political, moral, religious, scientific, artistic and philosophical views, according to the areas of judgment.

To express an opinion is to convey what you think about the topic under discussion. Let’s think about it, what would you do to convince the other person of something you accept to be true?

For example, you can give him the opportunity to perceive an event with his own senses. Generally, when people see an event with their own eyes and hear it with their ears, they are convinced that they are real. However, there are limits to what a person can learn with his senses, and his senses can mislead him. So you can’t justify everything like that. Secondly, you can reiterate your assertion that you firmly and sincerely believe to be true, but this may not be enough either. As a matter of fact, not every opinion you put forward is considered true because you personally believe it to be true. Even if you claim that your views reflect reality, reasons are needed to know that they are true. A third way is to provide evidence for the opinion you put forward, that is, you can justify your claim. In other words, you can develop arguments.


An argument is a new judgment based on certain evidence. The proposition or propositions that support the conclusion proposition are called premisses. The process of drawing conclusions from premises is called argumentation. The result may consist of a new judgment. The important thing here is that the premises form a basis for the conclusion.

Argument is a proposition or propositions put forward to support, justify or strengthen an opinion (We will discuss the issue of arguments in detail in chapter 4 of our unit). Propositions are key elements of logical reasoning. Sentences that can be true or false are called propositions. People express their opinions through propositions. Propositions suggest or assert that a situation or relationship exists. “Roses smell good.”, “Istanbul is a historical and touristic city.”, “Apples are sour.” Sentences like these are propositions because they contain a true or false judgment.


1. Premise: If you want reading to contribute to your life, you should interpret what you read.
2. Premise: Interpreting what they read gives people a broad horizon of life.
Conclusion proposition: Then, those who contribute to their lives with the books they read are those who bring a broad horizon to their lives.

The propositions given in the above example do not represent the argument alone. The argument exists in a chain of propositions and may consist of many propositions. If no proposition is in conflict with each other in the propositional set, it can have formal validity, but this is not enough for it to be a valid argument.

For the argument to be valid, the information given by the propositions must also be true. That is, the validity of an argument depends on its being logically and informationally correct. If one of these is missing, that argument is weak or invalid. An argument can be characterized on different levels, from “sound” to “unconvincing”.

Another issue with argument is the deliberate fraudulent construction of the argument. If an argument contains an attack on the personality of the person who said it to refute the opposing view, if it consists of illogical questions to confuse him, if it is deliberately and deliberately constructed in a skillfully inconsistent way.