Relation of Faith and Reason in Islamic Philosophy

Relation of Faith and Reason in Islamic Philosophy

In Islamic philosophy, it is stated that one can also believe in the relationship between reason and reason. The knowledge of faith does not contradict the knowledge of reason. In the discussion of the relationship between faith and reason, there is no excessive extremity between Islamic theologians and philosophers. According to Islam, faith must be knowledge-based in the relationship between reason and faith. According to Islam, religion is not only a matter of faith, but also a matter of reason. In Islam, the principles of faith are based on reason. Belief in mind is not an alternative. The expression olmayan unbelievers olmaz shows the importance given to reason in Islam. Allah’s greatest gift to man is reason, and revelation has been sent to support reason. While many truths in the Qur’an can be known wisely without revelation, revelation has been sent as a complement to support the sanity without sanction. When the truths of the mind and the truths of the revelation are combined, they will gain the power of reasoning. Like the Qur’an, reason is Allah’s verse. Nature, the universe and man are the verses of Allah. It is also possible to know them.

Islam reveals that the revelation is based on reason. In other words, God wants to be believed not because he says so in his revelation, but because the mind has reached the same result. It is believed that there is no field in the Islamic faith that conflicts with reason. Here, contradiction with reason is another; it is different for a subject to enter the field of knowing. For example, to believe that man has a soul that will continue after death does not contradict the mind, it is not contrary to the definitive judgments of the mind; but the mind, by its nature, cannot know it alone. When a believer believes in the soul, he does not contradict his mind; he learns and believes from another source in an area where he cannot suffice.

It is possible to see the subjects offered and offered by the religion of Islam in four areas:, faith, worship, morals, and the rules of life and recommendations deemed necessary to sustain the world life in harmony with these three principles bu. Islam has not ruled out reason in any of these areas, nor has it ruled against the precise judgment of reason. I have to point out that when I say reason, I mean the kesin precise judgments and principles of reason leri on which all intellectuals unite. Islam has not brought any knowledge, belief or offer contrary to these principles of identity such as identity and contradiction.

The source of knowledge in the books describing the Islamic faith has been determined as “havâss-i selîme, haber-i sadık and reason;; in other words, solid sense organs, knowledge of true revelation and  reason . There is also an expression that has become a rule in Islamic thought: “There is no contradiction between the revelation of Sahih (whose source, that is to say to Allah and the prophet), and the manifest and definitive reasoning. If there is such an image, research is done first; if the transfer (knowledge from revelation) is true, and the knowledge and judgment of the mind is clear and certain, revelation (verse and hadith) is granted; that is, it is judged that the divine purpose is not understood at first glance and the meaning of the dictionary, and that there is a metaphorical, representative expression.

Worship does not fall within the sphere of reason and science; they fall within the field of the believer, do not contradict reason and science, but the wisdom of reason and science, in essence and form “right, wrong; good, bad ”. Allah alone knows how to worship Him. Morality is not the right one, but the area which is about good and evil; here they say that science and not religion and philosophy are mentioned; it is very controversial to say that different understanding of morality is contrary to reason and science.

Islamic theologians view the issue philosophically rather than theology. Islamic philosophers do not exclude theology. Islamic theologians, the Qur’an by showing evidence of belief in faith and consensus. They stated that truth can be known by reason. Theologians generally divide the mind into two as nazari (theoretical) and operative (practical). Nazari mind allows people to understand and understand information that does not exist in behavior. The operative mind decides whether or not it is done when a person acts towards something.

Although reason is important, Islamic theologians agree that the knowledge of reason cannot be prevented by the knowledge of the revelation. Because they think that the mind has a limit. The prominent Islamic theologians are Mutezile and Maturidi schools. In addition , the views of Imam Ghazali coming from the Ash’ari tradition are  also important. Islamic philosophers, like theologians, are trying to reconcile faith with reason. For this, the views of the prominent philosophers Künhî,  Fârâbî  and  Ibn Rushd are important.

Al-Kindi states that the revelation knowledge has the same purpose as the philosophical knowledge shaped by reason. Both knowledge leads to the knowledge of truth. He argues that philosophy can give information of truth. Therefore, it is possible to reach faith with reason.

Fârâbî thinks that the subjects and aims of religion and philosophy are the same. He states that someone who says that philosophy and religion contradicts first does not understand religion. Fârâbî states that someone approaching the subject from this perspective is blindly attached to religion and that this is not the right behavior. He states that the mind can grasp all kinds of practical and theoretical knowledge and that it will give the truth when the mind is operated correctly. It states that the mind is capable of proving and can prove the knowledge of faith.

According to Ibn Rushd, the Holy Quran invites people to evaluate everything that exists explicitly through reason. Therefore, he believes that philosophy is not in conflict with religion, but is in consensus. He states that one of the ways of leading to truth should not be taken into consideration of the personal situations of the person who puts the information in mind; From Ibn Rushd’s point of view, the right information is reached by reason and the mental one is the belief.

Please also see:

–  According to the Mutezile theologians, what is the relationship between belief and reason in Islam?
–  According to Maturidi theologians, what is the relationship between belief and reason in Islam?
–  What is the relationship between faith and reason in Islam for Imam Ghazali?

Prepared by:  Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source:  Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook, MEB Textbook