Relation of Language and Literature in Enlightenment PhilosophyDecember 24, 2019
The relationship between philosophy and language and literature, 18-19. century philosophy.
The formation of ideas and their transmission went beyond philosophy and gained new methods of expression in art in general and in literature in particular. On the one hand, literature has expanded the field of thought and on the other hand has increased the interest of people in books.
In the 18th century, the number of printers increased rapidly and many publications began to be seen in various parts of Europe. The main factors influencing this are the growing growth of the bourgeois class and the devotion to philosophy and language and literature. There is a significant increase in the number of publications in this period of history. Philosophers and intellectuals not only produced philosophical products but also produced works from different fields. Among the mathematicians, lawyers and artists, there were also writers in the field of language and literature along with philosophy.
The writings of this period generally consist of topics of interest to society. It is seen that the intellectual debates made in the fields of politics, art and philosophy are explained in newspapers and magazines, and the books about the problems are also published. Concepts such as reason, experiment, progress, freedom, human rights, justice and equality have been used frequently.
Philosophical works of this period are problem centered and mind oriented. It addresses the bourgeois class more. Literary works are important in terms of addressing the feelings of the people, revealing the atmosphere of the period and philosophical debates through this line. Literary works have been the most important field affecting the spread of philosophy among the people. Philosophers have also written literary works. The influence of philosophy is also seen in the works of writers in the field of language and literature. The proliferation of philosophical and literary works increased intellectual wealth and influenced the public enlightenment.
18-19. The relationship of philosophy of the 16th century with language and literature is seen all over Europe, mainly in France. In France , philosophers such as Voltaire , Montesquieu and Rousseau produced important philosophical works. In addition, d’Alembert and Diderot in his work “Encyclopedia bilinen known as the most famous publication of the period writers with such writers and published volumes from this encyclopedia. Written in a critical manner, these works are important in terms of having a wide range of information and reading by a large audience. Some of these philosophers, in addition to intellectual and critical publications, have also produced works in literary genres involving plot. Voltaire’s ide Candide ”and Rousseau’s“ Emile ”are well-known examples. They are philosophical works in accordance with the spirit of enlightenment. The authors accelerated the cultural interaction with their works; It contributed to the enlightenment of the people and these efforts were effective in the formation of the French Revolution.
18-19. Towards the end of the 19th century, the disappearance of the aristocratic regime, especially under the influence of the French Revolution, provided a free environment for the expression of emotion and thought in ideal forms in the intellectual field. This new situation brought about the “romanticism” movement in literature. Romance; It is a trend that addresses all classes of society, where emotion and enthusiasm are important and a simple language is used. Romanticism, pioneered by French thinkers such as Voltaire and Rousseau, encompassed all of Europe. However, the 19th century. Turkish literature and thought movement also affected. The representatives of this movement in Turkish literature are: Namık Kemal, Ahmet Mithat, Recaizade Mahmut Ekrem, Abdülhak Hamit and Ziya Paşa.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook, MEB Philosophy Textbook