Relationship between Faith and Reason in Christian PhilosophyDecember 23, 2019
Changes in the judgments put forward in Christian philosophy regarding the relationship between faith and reason are observed. Although there are changes in judgments, for Christian philosophers, the relationship between faith and reason is more at the center of faith. Reason exists for understanding faith. Belief comes before the act of knowing. This has affected all areas of knowledge such as physics, chemistry, astronomy and medicine.
At the beginning of the Patristic Period, Tertullian makes a comparison between reason and faith by judging, için I believe because it is unreasonable (absurd).. He opposes both Greek philosophy and ideas that try to explain Christianity in a logical way. It states that there is a limit to the mind, that some things cannot be understood with the mind, and therefore believes.
Clemens criticized Tertullian with the conviction that inanıy I believe to understand. ” He emphasizes that what is believed must be confirmed by reason. Augustine also tried to ground faith with reason, and said that faith preceded reason, and agreed with ”I believe to understand.” This judgment points to belief as the first condition in the process of knowing. In the Scholastic Period, the importance of reason increased in the relationship between Aristotle’s influence and belief and reason compared to the first period and the knowledge of Christian religion was tried to be taught systematically. In this respect, reasoning was used to ground belief and to teach systematically. In addition, towards the end of the Scholastic Period, it is observed that reason and belief are separate areas. The outstanding philosophers of this period were Anselmus , Thomas of Aquino and William of Ockham .
At the beginning of the Scholastic Period, Anselmus agrees with ”I believe to understand. Ve and tries to ground belief in reason. He is not trying to prove reasoning, but trying to explain the knowledge that believing brings. Thomas of Aquino turns his judgment of inanıy I believe to understand ”into“ I know to believe.. It explains that faith and mind belong to two separate fields of knowledge, but that does not mean that there is no relationship between them, and that it is difficult to know some information about the field of mind and belief.
William of Ockham argued that faith and reason are two separate fields independent of one another, and opposed faith’s mind and mind’s interference in faith. The emergence of such philosophers on the stage of history is towards the Renaissance at the end of the Scholastic Period. Because the existence of a field of knowledge without belief is seen as an insult against Christian religion during this period.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook, MEB Philosophy Textbook