Scholastic Period, What is the Scholastic Period in Christian Philosophy, and When Is It?June 28, 2021
The Scholastic period is the second period of Christian philosophy from the 8th to the 15th centuries.
The name Scholastic comes from the schooling movement during this period for the teaching of Christianity. Scholastic means “path to school” or “schooling”. Anselmus, Thomas Aquino and William of Ockham are among the leading philosophers of this period. With the transfer of religion-oriented philosophy to the field of education in the Scholastic Period, many students received religious education and they spread Christianity rapidly. The University of Bologna and the University of Oxford are places that were established in this period and pioneered this tradition.
After the victory of Christianity, philosophical elements are seen in the subject matter and guiding principles determined by dogmas. This Christian philosophy, which forms a large part of medieval philosophy, will form a theory of life and world on a Christian basis. Those who perform this service are called “Occupiers” (school-men) and their system is called “Scholastic philosophy”. Scholastic philosophy was formulated by the Church Fathers and made doctrinal judgments on Christian dogmas.
Although students know Greek philosophy, they think differently from ancient thinkers in solving problems. The aim of the Greek philosophers was to provide a rational explanation for the universe. They were independent of popular religion and approach their task with a more or less scientific spirit. They use an argumentative method. On the other hand, they see Christianity beyond any discussion. They think that philosophy should be at the service of religion.
The mind is left free to use its abilities within the confines of Christian dogma; The human mind can interpret the world as it wishes. However, there is a difference when it comes to religious restrictions. The scholastic attitude and method proves unsatisfactory for the philosophical system to attempt to form on an independent basis of Christian dogma. The whole rational movement of scholasticism also attacks the other direction: it criticizes dogmas and the entire church system, the Bible and religious life transformed by the practice of individual consciousness. The theoretical and practical view of the Christian reform will be gathered in the two epochs that begin the modern period: the Renaissance and the Reformation.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook, MEB Philosophy Textbook, “Journey to Philosophy” Frank Thilly