Scientific Studies of Al-Kindi (Al Kindi)June 26, 2021
In mathematics, he wrote four books on the number system and laid the foundation for a large part of modern arithmetic. There is no doubt that the Arabic numeral system was largely developed by al-Kharizmi, but al-Kindi also made a rich contribution to this subject. He also contributed to spherical geometry to aid his work in astronomy.
In chemistry, he opposed the idea that base metals could be converted into precious metals. Contrary to prevailing alchemical views, he insisted that chemical reactions could not bring about the transformation of the elements. In physics, he made rich contributions to geometric optics and wrote a book on it. This book later provided guidance and inspiration to famous scientists such as Roger Bacon.
In medicine, his major contribution included the fact that he was the first to systematically determine doses applicable to all drugs known at the time. This resolved the prevailing conflicting opinions on dosage among physicians, which caused difficulties in prescribing.
Little is known about the scientific aspects of music in his time. He pointed out that each of the various notes brought together to produce harmony has a certain pitch. Therefore, notes with a pitch that are too low or too high are not pleasant. The degree of harmony depends on the frequency of the notes, etc. He also argued for the fact that when a sound is made, it creates waves in the air that hit the eardrum. His work included a composition method on the determination of the pitch.
He was a prolific writer: the total number of books written by him was 241. Highlights were split as follows: Astronomy 16, Arithmetic 11, Geometry 32, Medicine 22, Physics 12, Philosophy 22, Logic 9, Psychology 5, and Music 7.
In addition, various biographies written by him include tides, astronomical instruments, rocks, gems, etc. is about. He was also one of the first translators to translate Greek works into Arabic, but this fact was greatly overshadowed by his numerous original works. It is unfortunate that many of his books are no longer available, but those that are available demonstrate his extremely high standard of scholarship and contributions. He is known as Alkindus in Latin, and many of his books have been translated into Latin by Gherard of Cremona. His books translated into Latin during the Middle Ages were Risale der Tanzim, Ihtiyarat’ul-Ayyam, Ihiyat-e-Aristu, al-Mosika, Met-o-Cezr, and Edviyeh Murakkaba. The effect of al-Kindi on the development of science and philosophy is important in the awakening of the sciences of the period. In the Middle Ages, Cardano considered him one of the twelve greatest geniuses. His works indeed preceded the further development of various subjects over the centuries, notably physics, mathematics, medicine, and music.
Kindi’s Services to Science
Kindi, whom Cardano gave the title of “one of the 12 great men of humanity”, made a great contribution to the advancement of medieval science. One of the most important of these is the theory of relativity, which he put forward long before Einstein in physics. According to him, all beings and their physical events are relative. Time, space, motion are not independent and absolute things. Again, for time, “it is the duration of the existence of the object. It is not possible for me to think of time separately from the object and motion. However, speed and slowness, which can be known and measured over time, are also modalities of motion.” says. He explains the phenomenon of speed and slowness as follows: What we call slow, in a long time; speed is movement in a short time.”
According to Kindi, the situation that time, space and movement are not independent of each other is expressed by a person ascending and descending into the sky, despising the tree as it rises, and seeing it larger as it gets closer to the ground.
Kindi, who also made experiments on the laws of gravity and mass in physics, made important studies in optics, including the propagation of light along a straight line, seeing directly, seeing through a mirror, the effect of distance and viewing angle on vision, and vision errors. He influenced many Western scientists such as Bacon, Gerarde de Cremano and Witelo. In the East, his closest follower is his student Serahsi. He greatly influenced Farabi and Ibn Sina. According to Kindi, the propagation of light is not time-limited. Vision is achieved thanks to the light that diffuses and expands conically from the eye and surrounds the object.
For the first time in the history of science, El Kindi thought that a relationship could be established between the severity and nature of the disease and the dosages of drugs, and that the effect of drugs could be measured in the body, and he established scientific psychophysiology and broke new ground in medical science.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIR