Social and State Teachings of Modern PhilosophyJune 28, 2021
The social and state teachings of the New Age are based on the theory of the social contract. Social contract theory starts from the assumption of a social contract as the basis of the state. They base the existence of the social contract on another assumption, which they call the state of nature. The foremost proponents of this theory are T. Hobbes, J. Locke, J.J. It is Rousseau.
Modern Political Philosophy encompasses the teachings of society and the state that emerged in the 17th and 18th centuries. In this period, the main thinkers who put forward the teachings of society and the state are Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu and Rousseau. Among these thinkers, Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau tried to explain the origin of the state from the assumption of the state of nature. They saw the state of nature as a state of insecurity with absolute freedom and, therefore, various drawbacks and dangers.
However, according to Rousseau, Hobbes and Locke, he designed the state of nature as a state in which people are naturally free and equal. According to Hobbes and Locke, the state of nature is a situation that must be overcome. Therefore, it is necessary to pass into the state of society with a social contract. Rousseau, on the other hand, thought that the emergence of private property had irreversibly transformed the state of nature, and that what needed to be done was to create a social order that would secure human freedom and equality. Accordingly, the social contract is the basis of the social order and the state. Social contract theories have been put forward to provide an explanation for the problem of the origin of the social order and the state. What these theories express is that the basis of the sovereign entity, the power and legitimacy of the state is the social contract. In other words, people have voluntarily transferred all their rights and freedoms to a sovereign entity, and they have built a social order and established the state.
Modern Political Philosophy has developed a fundamentally different idea from the social and state teachings of the Ancient, Middle Ages and Renaissance periods. Ancient Age based the origin of society and state on human needs. In other words, society and the state were seen as natural entities originating from human nature in the Ancient Age. The Middle Ages, on the other hand, never discussed concepts such as political power or the sovereignty of the people, and saw all power in the Church, the representative of the state of God on earth. In such an understanding, individuals do not have political rights. What individuals need to do is to try to be citizens of the state of God. The Renaissance period also saw society and the state among natural entities. However, modern political philosophy has put forward social contract theories for the origin of society and the state. For this reason, they considered society and the state not as natural, but as an artificial entity established by contract. The clearest example of this is Hobbes’s statement that the state is an artificial object. All three philosophers, in their political theories, based the foundation of the state and society on the social contract, and treated the society and the state as the opposite of the natural state, as established entities.
– Thomas Hobbes and the absolutist understanding of the state
– John Locke’s understanding of liberal state
– Montesquieu and his understanding of political freedom
– Rousseau and contractual popular sovereignty