Social Mobility and Types of Social Mobility

Social Mobility and Types of Social Mobility

July 2, 2021 Off By Felso

The entry and exit of individuals between strata or the change in status within the same stratum is called social mobility. The displacement of individuals or groups in terms of physical space or social position in the social structure is called social mobility.

Individuals or groups can move between social strata or within the same stratum. These changes occur in two ways. Types of social mobility can be divided into horizontal mobility and vertical mobility.

Changes in the form of transition from the lower strata to the upper strata or descent from the upper strata to the lower strata, which cause significant changes in the income level, prestige and lifestyle of individuals, are called vertical mobility. Changes that do not cause a significant difference in the income level, dignity and lifestyle of individuals are called horizontal mobility.

The most common type of horizontal mobility; vocational mobility. Another type is geographical mobility between settlements and regions.

Vertical and horizontal mobility can sometimes occur together. For example, someone working for a company in one city may be promoted to a higher professional status in a branch of the same company in another city or even in another country.

The extent to which an individual who is born as a member of a family in the lower strata of a society has the opportunity to move to the upper strata depends on various socioeconomic conditions. Perhaps the most important of these conditions are ensuring equality of opportunity, removing barriers to competition and educational opportunities. All developed contemporary societies have a structure that enables all kinds of social mobility in these respects.

TYPES OF SOCIAL MOBILITY
VERTICAL MOBILITY
In vertical mobility, the social position of the individual and, accordingly, the lifestyle changes.

The transition from one layer to another or from one class to another is defined as vertical mobility. In vertical mobility, the social position of the individual and, accordingly, the lifestyle changes.

Factors such as education, economy and political power play a role in vertical mobility. For example, the fact that a person in the lower class becomes a high-level bureaucrat as a result of the education he receives, that a worker in a workplace becomes the boss of the workplace after a while, or that he becomes a deputy from a political party are all vertical movements.

Vertical mobility is the upward and downward mobility between layers. In upward mobility, a person gains status, while in downward mobility, he loses status.

For example, vertical mobility for a person who works as a town pharmacist in a rural area develops his job over time and becomes a boss in the pharmaceutical industry. It is vertical mobility for a high school principal to be promoted to the general directorate in his field or to become the general director of security for someone who started his professional life as an assistant commissioner. Here, with the rise of the status of the individual, his income has increased, his business relations and lifestyle have changed. Similarly, when a supermarket owner goes bankrupt and becomes a worker in a grocery store, vertical mobility is downward.

Contemporary societies where industrialization and democracy have developed allow and even encourage all kinds of vertical mobility. In such a development, the principle of the right to education, which provides education for everyone, and equality of opportunity in education play an important role.

Through equality of opportunity in education, individuals gain their status in society according to their abilities and work. For example, in democratic societies where there is equality of opportunity, a poor but talented individual can move from the lower strata to the upper strata with his successes. This also has positive contributions to ensuring social peace.

HORIZONTAL MOBILITY
Transitions between occupations that are the same in terms of social prestige and income level are horizontal mobility in this sense.

Unlike vertical mobility, it is called horizontal mobility when an individual in a social stratum changes his job, environment or place of residence to another similar job, environment or place without changing his lifestyle.

For example, the unskilled work and position of an agricultural worker in a village or rural area due to his migration to the city is horizontal mobility. A factory worker being a worker in another factory, a manufacturer opening a new factory, a big bank manager transferring to another bank as a manager, a governor being appointed as the central governor are examples of horizontal mobility.

Transitions between occupations that are the same in terms of social prestige and income level are horizontal mobility in this sense.

In the caste system, the individual cannot move from one caste to another; In feudalism, a serf could not escape the control of the lord to whom he belonged, however, in today’s societies where open class stratification prevails, individuals can change their jobs, where they live and where they work. This shows that in today’s societies, individuals or groups have the opportunity to constantly change their social positions.

For example, some