Socialization, What is Socialization?July 2, 2021
The interaction process in which individuals learn the values, attitudes, knowledge and skills of the society they are a member of, in short, the culture of that society is called socialization.
In this interaction process, the individual learns to live with others in the society as a social being, and the society transforms him into a social individual. Because people are not born as beings equipped with socio-cultural values. On the contrary, as a part of the society in which they were born and raised, they recognize, learn, adopt and shape their lives according to its values and characteristics passed down from generation to generation for centuries.
Here in sociology, the process of individuals becoming a member of the society they live in, that is, the process of adopting the society’s value system and ideals and becoming a part of the society is called socialization.
The definition of socialization in the dictionary of the Turkish Language Association is as follows: “Socialization; The process of preparing the individual for a certain social environment by gaining personality, integrating with the society, is socialization. This definition is the definition of socialization as the word meaning made by TDK.
Socialization as a sociological concept; It is the process of adapting to the society in which a person who needs help to survive. In this process (socialization process), human; learns the cultural values of the society in which he was born, acquires unique skills, and becomes an individual who has reached his own consciousness.
Socialization has two functions, one of which is to ensure the development of the self, and the second is to ensure the transfer of culture from one generation to the next. Societies reproduce themselves by transferring their values, social behaviors and cultural heritage from generation to generation. Through socialization, each society enables each new generation to grow up by learning the values and norms of that society, thus fulfilling the behaviors expected by the society. An individual cannot be fully human without relating to other people. Individuals remaining in the socialization process are likely to encounter emotional, mental and even physical problems.
We often don’t feel the need to think about the extent to which our past lives and the effects of other people with whom we share our lives are influential in the formation of our personalities. It’s as if we were born with the identity and personality we have now, and we have the impression that others have no influence over us. The same conviction prevails over us as we continue our daily lives. However, we do not take into account the social factors, institutions and social groups that are effective in the formation of our choices. In order to understand this situation more clearly, it is useful to take a look at the famous study of the American Sociologist Kingsley Davis in the 1940s, in which he examined children who could not relate to other people.
Davis revealed in his study that the physical and psychological development of children who do not interact with people is not normal. One of the children in the study, Anna, was an illegitimate child, and her mother had therefore hid her in the attic since she was born. Anna rarely met other people and was given very low levels of care. By the time she was six, Anna couldn’t talk, walk, or eat by herself. She did not respond to speech or behavior towards her, so she was initially thought to be deaf and blind. The physical and mental damage Anna suffered was not easily repaired, and after four years of training, Anna was barely able to walk, speak a few words, and show interest in her doll. When she died at the age of 11, Anna could only reach the level of a 2 or 3 year old child (Coser, 1983:107). This example shows that the socialization process is an extremely important process for the development of the individual as well as the society.
As can be seen in the example, people inevitably lead their lives in interaction with society and social groups; they learn and teach, they influence and influence. In every society, there are some groups and institutions that aim to make individuals a healthy member of the society they live in. These institutions and groups, called socialization tools, prepare the individual for social life from childhood. Anna could not complete her personal development as she stayed away from these factors.
Almost all living things are born among living things of the same species as themselves. Among them, some can take care of themselves right after birth, while others cannot survive without any support or help. Here, as a living creature, at least 5-6 years after the beginning of his life, he cannot continue his life without any support and help.
Socialization provides the communication and interaction of different generations with each other in the society. These different generations, the process of socialization