Spinozaism, What is Spinozism?July 2, 2021
Spinozaism or Spinozism is the system that expresses the teaching of Spinoza and the philosophical attitude of his followers. Baruch (Benedict) Spinoza, who, in Engels’ words, “has the honor of explaining the world to the world,” is a descendant of great thinkers who pushed the boundaries of his age. His teaching is also called Spinozaism.
Spinoza is an active materialist who necessarily remains within a metaphysical framework. He identified God with nature, counted finite individuals as modes (appearances) of an infinite substance, and argued that all finite beings are necessarily derived from a single substance. He saw freedom for the first time as the realization of necessity.
Spinozaism is a materialist philosophical system.
According to him, he explained the purpose of knowledge with man’s domination of nature. He contributed to the metaphysical materialism of pre-dialectical ages, free thought and human development. Of course, he could not avoid making many mistakes, since he was limited to the scientific knowledge of his age. For example, he underestimated the great role of experiment and overemphasized intellectual knowledge. He reduced the spiritual structure to perception and emotion, and identified will with desire. He argued that human behavior is governed by self-interest and defense. He despised the masses of the people and said that only heroic people can be free. He regarded mental intuition as the highest form of knowledge.
Despite all these errors, Spinoza developed a materialist system of philosophy and, in Engels’ words, left the verification of his assumptions to “later natural scientists”.
Spinoza was the founder of the geometric method in philosophy. He asserted the materialist unity of the universe. He went beyond Descartes’ dualism and developed a materialist monism, saying that all objects are derived from a single substance (the concept of substance expresses the unchanging essence of objects in philosophy). This substance is nature, which is eternal and eternal in time and space. Nature evolves by its own laws, it is its own cause and requires no supernatural power, and the soul is not something outside of this substance.
Spinoza finds freedom in the broadest sense in thought. To understand everything is to be free. The captivity of the person who has clear thinking disappears. People are prisoners of what they do not know, they become free when they reach knowledge. So the measure of our virtuousness is in our understanding of things, in our freedom. What is morally good, that develops intelligence; Evil is what blurs the mind. Virtue is strength (remember, the Latin word for virtue, virtus, originally meant strength). To be strong, you must be free. To be free, one must act rationally.
The philosophical trend that combines all these philosophical ideas is called Spinozism or Spinozism.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer Yıldırım