Spinoza’s Understanding of ManJune 26, 2021
The understanding of human in Spinoza has necessary contexts directly related to his philosophical system and the geometrical metaphysical unity he established.
The concept of substance is established to explain the universe as a system of necessary connections with a monistic understanding, and all beings are explained as necessary manifestations of this substance, which is nothing but God. God is the essence of all things in the dimension of infinity (sub specia aeternitatis); If man is the cause of himself in the dimension of time or duration (sub specia durationis), God, who is the cause of the existence of everything on this basis, also helps Spinoza to solve the body-soul dilemma.
It is possible to express this solution as follows: The body (corpus) and the soul are manifestations of God’s eternal essence, and therefore the order of the real world and the order of the soul are united. Thus, the individual-subject known in the traditional sense, and therefore the human being, was abolished in the Spinozist system. In this system, there is no room for an understanding of a person who has an individual mind and will, makes his own decisions and is free in the decisions he makes; on the contrary, spirit and matter, mind and reality appear as manifestations of a single and infinite essence, as beings determined equally by necessity.
Spinozian metaphysics, which does not recognize human will as will, leads to an interesting understanding of ethics; The interestingness arises from the fact that ethics in the known sense is based on will and human decisions. A philosophical system that explains existence and existence as a whole in causality must necessarily fit ethics into the same system. Accordingly, Spinoza shapes a naturalist and mechanistic thought towards the human spirit.
For Spinoza, abstract ethical laws and setting value judgments mean nothing, the important thing is to recognize the truth, which he explains in his system what it is like. Strength and virtue are important in explaining man, but both are grounded in the knowledge of God. Since Spinoza’s philosophical system starts with the idea of God and ends with the idea of God, the correct position of man is to turn to knowledge according to the requirements determined by this system and to comprehend his own obligations. Spinoza bases his thoughts on human-society-state in line with this philosophical thinking, and creates the definition of human in his theological-political thought.