Stages of Freud Personality DevelopmentJune 28, 2021
According to Freud, the desire to be satisfied with the sexual drive, which directs the behavior of the individual, shapes Freud’s personality theory.
As mentioned before, sexual urges are not only about sexuality but also include all pleasure situations, such as enjoying an accomplished job. Libido, defined by Freud as the energy created by the sexual drive, concentrates in different parts of the body as the individual matures. The areas where libido is concentrated in the body are replaced by the maturation of babies. Stabbing occurs if the sexual energy is somehow stuck in a certain part of the body during the maturation process. Sting in a certain body region leads to certain changes in personality behaviors in the future of the individual.
The baby connects with the outside world through his mouth in the period up to 18 months. For the baby, who takes everything to his mouth, the way of feeding, recognizing objects in the outside world, sucking and swallowing passes through the mouth area, which includes the lips, tongue and teeth. For this reason, libido is concentrated in the mouth area. Children who are orally satisfied display optimistic and dependent adult characteristics, while those with low satisfaction display aggressive and pessimistic characteristics. According to Freud, the fixation in this period is closely related to the cynical, arguing, easily deceived, insecure personality that may be experienced in the future.
Anal Period (18 months-3.5 years)
During this period, the libido in children shifts to the anal region. For the child, this period is an important period in terms of toilet training. Going to strict and oppressive practices while toilet training is given to children can cause troublesome personality traits in the future. The child wants to keep control by holding the toilet. After very strict toilet training in this period, children may show self-harming personality traits in their adulthood. Freud suggests that personality traits such as stubbornness, stinginess, being overly meticulous and orderly are related to the fixation experienced in this period.
Phallic Period (3-5 years old)
In children of this age period, sexual energy shifts towards the genital area. The child, who begins to explore his genitals, develops a feeling of jealousy towards his same-sex parents, while he begins to show excessive attachment to his parents of the opposite sex. This kind of over-devotion of the boy to his mother, Freud calls the Oedipus complex (complex) based on the Greek mythology Oedipus who unknowingly killed his father and married his mother. In this period, boys are jealous of their fathers and cannot share their mother. The state of passion and admiration for the father and excessive jealousy of the mother in girls is called the Electra complex. The child, who sees that the parents of his own sex are stronger than himself, finally identifies with the parents of his own sex, takes him as a model for himself and starts to gain the behavioral characteristics that are accepted by the society. While personality traits such as worthlessness and shyness can be seen in individuals who are stuck in these periods, it is possible for individuals who cannot overcome this period successfully, to display personality traits to display their sexual power excessively.
After the phallic period ends, children begin to lose interest in sex. This process, which starts at the age of 5 or 6, continues until puberty. During this period, the child is not interested in gender-related issues, and in this period, the choice of girls and boys in playgroups is usually directed towards their own gender. In this process, when children direct their displays of affection to their friends outside the home, negative behaviors towards school-age children create a feeling of inferiority in the child.
The period that begins with adolescence and is the last psychosexual stage is the genital period. As of the period, with the awakening of sexual urges, there is a situation where unsaturated sexual urges are met through sexual intercourse. However, at this stage, the most ideal is to postpone the impulses with the predominance of issues such as the sense of responsibility and thinking about other people (Morris, 2002). Freud’s theory has been criticized as a theory that focuses on men and emphasizes sexuality. As Freud suggested, the number of girls experiencing a sense of inferiority due to what he called “penis jealousy” because they do not have a penis is no longer widely accepted. Attributing the difference between men and women in personality development to this reason is seen as insufficient in terms of personality development. The differentiation of the duties that individuals acquire in society according to their gender may cause them to acquire different personality traits. It is criticized that Freud’s theory has unlimited power to explain everything. According to this situation, it is possible to define every behavior of a person as a problematic behavior. Scientifically unprovable opinions and opinions