Stateless Society: The Relationship between Communism and Anarchism

Stateless Society: The Relationship between Communism and Anarchism

June 28, 2021 Off By Felso

Although the communist phase was expressed in the works of Marx and Engels, the influence of Vladimir I. Lenin is felt especially when it gained its form applied in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

In his work State and Revolution, in which he reveals the Marxist theory of the state and the duties of the proletariat in the revolution, Lenin puts forward the Pioneer Party theory, arguing that the way to reach the communist society is through the dictatorship of the proletariat, which will lead the society in the transition process.

The Vanguard Party theory shows the leadership of the “professional revolutionary” class, which was created by Lenin to protect the working class from the deception of the ideas and beliefs of the bourgeoisie and to discover their revolutionary potential. This revolutionary class is tasked with managing the state to be established as a transitional level on the road to communism. According to Lenin, the need for the state still remains during the construction of communism as the economic system of the oppressed: “The proletariat needs State power, the central organization of power, in order to crush the resistance of the exploited and to lead the large masses of the population – the peasants, petty bourgeois and semi-proletarians – in the work of organizing the socialist economy. needs the organization of violence” (Lenin 2009, p. 6). In fact, Lenin’s views explain the reasons why the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, while theoretically expected to go to the dictatorship of the proletariat, turned into a party dictatorship in practice at the beginning of the 20th century. The views of Lenin, who argues that parliamentary politics, political power coming to power through elections, is an illusion of freedom created by the bourgeoisie, are in practice an example of the emergence of dictatorship in a situation where the freedoms of the citizens are gradually destroyed and the state power is not limited.

Another name that is as important as Lenin in the communist practice of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is Joseph Stalin. In his theory of “one country socialism”, Stalin asserts that each country can convert to communism within itself without the need for an international revolution. Undoubtedly, such a theory brings with it a great economic and social change in practice. In this way, private property was abolished for the first time in the Soviet Union in 1928 and all production resources passed into the hands of the state. The violent suppression of opposition to all these changes, while pushing the country into a period of oppression and terror, also means gradually moving away from the ideal of a classless society. The ideal of communist society, which is gradually moving away from the theoretical goals, leads to a structure in which the individual disappears and equality is replaced by hierarchies. In this respect, the aim of communist theory, which is to get rid of the state and liberate society, causes the state to be defined as an end in itself, just like in statist theories.

Another ideology that theoretically shares the ideal of a stateless society with communism is anarchism. While liberals, socialists or conservatives make room for the state to a certain extent within their ideology, anarchists seek to abolish the state entirely. The views of anarchism are based on two main arguments. The first of these arguments is the part of the capitalist system that takes part in the administration and public service, in fact the part of the state that exploits the people with the means of violence and therefore ensures the continuity of the system. For this reason, anarchists reject any form of state-related structure. The second argument on which anarchism is based is that the organization of society from the bottom up in such a way that freedoms are provided to the widest extent creates an ideal social order. However, at this point, the understanding of freedom also reveals the differences of opinion among anarchists. Some anarchists interpret freedom in terms of the individual. According to them, the only real person is the individual, and therefore any structure that will replace the collapsed state system must be built on the basis of the individual. Some anarchists have a socialist perspective. According to them, small communes to be established with the disappearance of the state are an ideal form of organization where individuals will claim their freedoms by using their social participation opportunities. The point of convergence of all anarchists, whether individualist or socialist, is the idea that an order in which there is no state and its carrier government, where people are far from all kinds of authority relations, and social exploitation disappears through voluntary cooperation is the only condition for human beings to realize their possibilities.