Subjects and Basic Disciplines of PhilosophyJune 26, 2021
Philosophy, with its wide range of influence and interest, is one of the oldest pursuits of human existence, which has been the source of all fields of science. The issues and problems addressed in philosophy depend on the questions asked and the answers given to them.
From sports to art, from ethics to politics, from language to science, all kinds of issues that concern people and their actions are the direct field of interest and way of dealing of philosophy. In this context, philosophy is divided into different sub-disciplines within the framework of the subjects it covers.
In this title, we will try to explain these philosophical disciplines one by one and briefly. Because each sub-discipline is already available as a separate heading in their broadest form on Philosophy.gen.tr.
We can say that there are three main subjects of philosophy that have remained unchanged since the First Age: Existence, knowledge, value.
“What is being, which deals with being as a whole?” philosophy of being seeking the answer to the question;
“What is the source and value of the information?” philosophy of knowledge seeking the answer to the question;
Examining human life and basic virtues, “What is good?” philosophy of value seeking the answer to the question.
Apart from these, different subjects and sub-branches have emerged according to the ages, historical and social conditions. Subjects and sub-branches of philosophy can be listed as follows in relation to the questions asked:
What is the source of power? (political philosophy)
What is beautiful? (philosophy of art)
What is religion? (philosophy of religion)
What is science? (philosophy of science)
Is accurate information possible? (philosophy of knowledge)
Can anything be said to exist? (philosophy of being)
Are there universal moral rules? (moral philosophy)
MAIN DISCIPLINES OF PHILOSOPHY
Philosophy of knowledge (epistemology)
One of the subjects that philosophy deals with is knowledge. Science is also interested in this subject. But science does not investigate what knowledge is. Philosophy explores this. Philosophy also tries to find the relation of knowledge to what it is acquired, its relevance to what it is gained, and the measure of this conformity.
Philosophy of science
It is a branch of philosophy that seeks answers to questions that can be asked about science, such as what science is, the structure of scientific thought, the functionality of scientific methods, the characteristics of scientific results, the value of science, and so on.
Philosophy of Being (ontology)
It is the branch of philosophy that deals with existence. Ontology, which deals with tangible entities that can be seen and tangible, as well as abstract entities such as numbers, concepts, ideas, primarily deals with the problem of existence or not. If it accepts existence as existing, it tries to explain it through thought.
It is a branch of philosophy that deals with issues such as existence, God, the immortality of the soul, and destiny. This word has been used in various meanings throughout history. Today, it is an area that deals with problems that cannot be solved, many solutions can be suggested, and can always be dealt with again because they are not solved until the end.
It is the branch of philosophy that deals with the essence and meaning of art, artistic creativity, tastes. Among the main topics he deals with are art, work of art, what is beautiful in art, basic concepts of art and art movements.
The relationship between language and philosophy; deals with the essence, meaning, origin and structure of language from a philosophical point of view. It explores the connection of language with reality and consciousness. Today, some thinkers working in this field have tried to create an artificial language that will facilitate the realization of the purpose of science.
Moral philosophy (ethics)
It is a branch of philosophy that considers human actions as a special problem area, investigates the principles that govern them, and wants to find out what “ought to be” behaviors are as well as “what is happening”.
philosophical anthropology (human ontology)
It is a branch of philosophy that deals with problems such as the structure of human being, what he is, his place in the universe, the conditions of existence and his connection with other beings.
It deals with how the state should be, its responsibility, the principles of law, such as rights and justice, and how they relate to other moral values.
philosophy of religion
Faith is a human need. Religion deals with this world of belief. But it does not deal with the problems of what religion is, what kind of connection is between man and God. The branch of philosophy dealing with these problems is the philosophy of religion.
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Grade 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and “Introduction to Sociology” (Ömer YILDIRIM); Other Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM)