Synthesis, What is Synthesis?July 1, 2021
Combining. Bringing various elements together, combining them into a whole. The result of this merger. It is anti-analysis.
Synthesis, or the term ‘synthesis’ used in Turkish, expresses the recombination of elements that have been separated by analysis, as opposed to analysis. The term gained importance especially in Hegel’s dialectic. The German thinker Hegel expresses this in the phrase negation of negation, in the sense of reaffirming the conflict of affirmation and negation at a higher level. For example, the egg is an object suitable for itself, it has affirmed itself. But more and more, the seed inside the egg denies that egg, gnawing for its own benefit. But this is not an aimless denial. The chick, which will produce new eggs, emerges by piercing the shell of the egg, thus denying the seed’s rejection of the egg. The denial of this negation is a synthesis, the chick affirmed itself by gaining its existence.
The negation or synthesis of every negation is a new affirmation or assertion (thesis). The conflict has been resolved and the contradiction has been overcome for the time being, but this new synthesis brings its own contradiction. And he will give eggs that will wear him out and deny him. For unity is temporary and contradiction is permanent. Thus, every synthesis includes its antithesis (antithesis) as a new argument. The eggs produced by the chick by becoming chickens will deny itself, and the new chicks hatching from those eggs will also deny this denial. This is the law of universal occurrence in Hegel’s dialectic. However, Hegel puts forward this law with an idealist understanding, as a logic, that is, as a law of thought.
In the Introduction to his Logic Knowledge, he says: “What is needed to realize progress in knowledge is to grasp this law of logic. According to this law of logic, what is denied is also the positive. In other words, what is opposed does not reach zero in absence, but only in the negation of its content. The conclusion is that the negation, being a certain negation, also carries a certain content. It is a new concept. But it is a higher, richer concept than the previous one. Because it is elevated, enriched by its negation or its opposite. So it contains it, but more than itself. it contains both itself and its opposite. Concepts thus come into being and develop in a continuous flow.”