The ancient philosophers lived in Anatolia, philosophers lived in Turkey
5-6 BC. century, some philosophers who lived on the west coast of Anatolia, came to the fore with their explanations about natural phenomena of that period.
The common nature of these statements; It is based on natural observations and investigations that do not contain mythological elements. Philosophers; existence, nature and the universe within the framework of the observations they have tried to explain with certain principles. Thales, Anaximandros, Anaximenes, Anaxagoras, Xenophanes and Heraclitus are among the most well known philosophers.
The work of philosophers is important in terms of being the basis for the latter and contributing to the development and systematization of philosophy. The fact that most sources point to these philosophers at the point where philosophy starts systematically increases their importance. Many philosophers who contributed to philosophical thought as of that period are found in this geography. Diogenes, Aristotle, Epictetus and Lukianos are the prominent ones.
Thales lived in Miletus (Aydın / Didim). According to some sources he is considered the first philosopher and scientist in history. In his explanation of the universe he proposed a substance-based principle. Apart from philosophy, he has also worked in mathematics, geometry and astronomy. It is said to have predicted solar eclipse. He is the one who created the ales Thales Theorem geçen in geometry.
Like Anaximandros Thales, he lived in Miletus (Aydin / Didim) and is considered his student. He has also studied mathematics, astronomy, cartography and nature. It is also said that he developed a tool that determines the position of the sun through the sundial and drew maps of the earth.
Anaksimenes is one of the philosophers who lived in Miletus (Aydın / Didim). He is considered to be a student of Anaximandros. His ideas about the formation of the universe system and beings came to the fore in the history of philosophy. He worked in the field of astronomy. It gave accurate information about the Sun and Moon eclipses.
Anaxagoras lived in Klazomenai (İzmir / Urla). It has come forward with the concept of ıyla nous yönelik in the history of philosophy. This concept refers to the principle that regulates and moves substances according to a purpose.
Heraclitus lived in Ephesus (Izmir / Ephesus / Selcuk). He came to the fore with the idea of being on beings. It was called güç Dark Herakleitos dolayı because his works were difficult to understand and he made his expression as aphorisms. In the history of thought, “You cannot enter the same river twice”.
Epictetus was born in Hierapolis (Denizli / Pamukkale). One of the representatives of the philosophy of Stoa, Epictetus was known for his thoughts on morality. He was a philosopher who was born as a slave in the period and was freed from slavery. He came to the fore with his ideas on wisdom, will, freedom and harmony with nature.
Diogenes was born in Sinope. “Cynic” is the philosopher who defends his philosophical doctrine. Diogenes, who lives in a pier in the quay, has argued that property is not important in life and that human beings should live in harmony with nature. The King of Macedonia, who came to visit him, was a philosopher who made it clear with the saying, etme Do you have any request from me? Karşılık
Lukianos (Lukiyanos ) was born in Shamishat (Adiyaman / Samsat). He has especially produced works on morality. He is a powerful rhetoric (the art of persuading by word). He criticized the thoughts and mythological beliefs of the period, especially the Cynics.
Xenophanes (Kısefones ) was born in Kolophon (İzmir / Değirmendere). It has created thoughts about the cultural life of human and society.
Aristotle Aristotle, one of the most important philosophers in the history of philosophy, was considered one of the philosophers living in Anatolia because he spent a part of his life in Assos (Çanakkale / Ayvacık) and carried out philosophical studies there. Aristotle, who came to the fore with his studies in many fields of knowledge such as logic, politics and biology, has put forward views in many of these fields and whose influence lasted for ages. He is also known as the first historian of philosophy and science for his knowledge of previous philosophies and scientific studies. Aristotle, known as the first biologist in terms of classifying living things, also taught Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia.
Kleanthes was born in Çanakkale Ayvacık. Kleanthes became a disciple of Zenon after he went to Athens and became the head of his school after he died. Kleanthes is very poor and works in gardens.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook, MEB Philosophy Textbook