The Ascension Period of Scholastic PhilosophyJune 28, 2021
Since the 12th century, important works of Arabic philosophy began to be translated and read in the West, and Aristotle’s thought was reached from these sources, through a kind of interpretation. Aristotleism thus emerged became the dynamic of the rise of scholasticism. Islamic philosophy developed its power while the West was in cultural decline and was able to acquire the texts of the main philosophers of ancient philosophy.
Avicenna played an important role especially in the inclusion of Aristotle’s philosophy in the Arab world. He is one of the thinkers who emphasized the problem of universals and these thoughts will be effective in the ascension period scholastic.
Aristotle’s texts, like other Islamic philosophers, will be transported to the West through his work.
Another Aristotelian Islamic philosopher is Ibn Rushd. He interpreted and explained the works of Aristotle. He tried to establish a relationship between belief and reason, and tried to evaluate belief as another form of knowledge of reason.
Jewish philosophy and the translations and interpretations made by Jewish philosophers in this period are another source that was influential in the rise of scholastic philosophy in the west. Moses Maimenides is the most influential of these philosophers. He is also an Aristotelian and has produced ideas to unite religion and philosophy, faith and reason. The ascendant scholasticism fed from both sources (Jewish and Islamic philosophies) made Aristotle’s philosophy its mainstay.
The philosophical work of the scholastic in this period is aimed at establishing an information system that will cover all knowledge areas. The Italian mystical thinker Bonaventura puts forward this attempt with his efforts to reconcile Augustine and Aristotle. It can be said that he also uses a kind of ontological proof. Knowledge is the state of being united in what is to be known, which is the main direction of all mysticism.
In Bonaventura he constructs a metaphysics in this direction. The most important philosopher of the medieval and scholastic is known as Albertus Magnus. He compiled Aristotle’s philosophy, Arab and Jewish interpretations, and played an important role in recognizing and understanding them.
He was a scholastic thinker who was closely interested in the natural sciences. He revealed a systematic structure from the philosophy of Aristotle.
Thomas Aquino was a student of Albertus Magnus and is considered the greatest philosopher of the entire scholastic period. His teaching was accepted as the official philosophy of the Catholic church. According to Thomas, religious truths and philosophical truths, namely the truths of belief and reason, are the truths of two different types of knowledge. Thus, instead of the proposition “believing in order to understand”, Thomas substituted “knowing in order to believe”. What this means is that the highest enlightenment and revelation can come through knowledge. The way to enter the temple of faith is knowledge, and philosophy is the activity that will illuminate this way. Knowing God is also the highest ideal of knowledge for Thomas, and the mind has to accept some secrets as they are while heading towards reaching this high point. Developing a more flexible stance on realism, Thomas develops the approach called cosmological proof, unlike ontological proof.