The Concept of God and Religions’ Understanding of GodJune 29, 2021
The concept of God has different meanings for every cultural world. On the other hand, the definitions made about the concept of god can unite on some common points in almost every cultural way of thinking.
Some of the different ideas put forward regarding God are as follows:
What is Polytheism?
It is a form of belief that is very common in ancient Greek and Nordic mythologies and accepts the existence of many personal gods. It is also known as polytheism. Etymologically, it derives from the Greek words poly (many) and theoi (god). It means believing and worshiping more than one god.
What is Henotheism?
It is a belief system put forward by Max Müller that defines accepting the existence of other gods while connecting to a god. This form of belief is also known as polytheism; but a single god precedes all other gods. According to Müller, this belief; In principle it is monotheism, in reality polytheism.
What is Monotheism?
This term is briefly referred to as “Theism”. Belief in the existence of only one god. God is the Most High and Mighty, who exists by himself and creates everything. According to this view, God created everything from nothing.
What is Pantheism?
It is the doctrine that argues that the universe conceived as a whole is identical with god and that there is no god except for the composite substance, powers and laws revealed in the universe. It is generally associated with Hinduism and eastern religions. It is not very common in the West. God is not a person. He presents his presence in everything and in the whole universe.
What is Panentheism?
According to this belief, God cannot be identified with the universe, but can be seen as being included in the universe. Although the universe is considered God in a sense, God is larger than the universe. It is the belief that God, the first mover, created the universe and all beings from his essence, and that transcendent dominates the universe as an absolute and unchanging entity in the consciousness of the universe.
The above are the views of God of the major religions of our world. These main titles actually have sub-titles. Of course, it is not possible to describe each of them separately. However, we also need to see some sub-beliefs here:
What is Dualism?
It is to assert the existence of two opposing principles that cannot be reduced to each other in any field. It is the equivalent of the terms monism and pluralism. It appears as a form of pantheism. The dualist believes in two gods against each other. In general, one of these gods is a good god and the other is an evil god. As can be seen, it is to preserve a polytheistic belief system and limit it to two gods.
What is Deism?
It is the name of the view that opposes all kinds of religious knowledge obtained through revelation or a church teaching, but argues that everyone has a certain religious knowledge from birth or can obtain it through reason. Deism states that the power of deity is limited only by the process of creation, and once created, the god does not interfere in any of the world’s affairs, in other words, he does not rule the world. In a sense, it can be said to be a sub-type of Theism. In this belief, one believes in a single God like a Theist, but the difference is that according to the Deist, this God does not interfere with any work of the universe after the act of creation.
What is Absolute Monism?
Monism is the metaphysical and theological view that all things are of one necessity, principle, matter or energy. This is again a variation of Pantheism or Panentheism. According to this belief, God is in absolute unity. It only reveals itself in a plural form to a world that is not fully real.
In addition to such views and varieties of godly belief, there are also those who refuse to accept any god. It is possible to summarize them under the following headings:
Agnostics: According to this understanding, the truth about God is unknown and cannot be known. The existence or non-existence of God cannot be proven.
Atheism: It is the view that is the opposite of theism. Atheists completely reject the existence of god and do not accept it in any way.
Naturalism: It is simply the positive expression of atheism. Atheists do not accept the idea of a god behind nature and argue that everything exists by itself. Although atheism is a belief followed by many anti-religious people, sometimes some religious people have acquired this belief. It is seen that Teravada, a type of Buddhism, was influenced by atheism. Some atheists also argue that humanistic human religion can exist without any relation to any god.