The Emergence and Transformation of the Nation-StateJune 28, 2021
In the classical language usage of the Romans, in the majority of today’s European languages, “natio”, which corresponds to the concept of nation, and “gens” are opposite concepts to “civitas”, which means citizen (Habermas 2002, p. 18).
Nations, from the very beginning, that is, centuries before the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution, are communities of ancestry that are geographically located and neighborhoods, and culturally, with a common language, customs and traditions, in a state-like but non-political organization (ibid.). For example, in the Middle Ages, university students were grouped in terms of their country of origin (nationes), and with the increase in geographical mobility in European communities, the concept of “nationes” began to be used to correspond to the distinctions made within the country or geographical region, such as knight sect, university, monastery, trade settlement. (moon).
The understanding of racist politics, which felt its influence in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, was fed by the definition of the nation associated with lineage.
It is a historical fact that almost everyone with an average primary and secondary education knows that the concept of nation-state and today’s nation-states are the result of the Enlightenment, French Revolution and Industrial Revolution that took place in European societies in the eighteenth century. Nation-states, which first started with France, Italy, Germany in the geography of their birth, then spread to other central and eastern European countries, also emerged in Asia and Africa in 1945 and after the end of the Second World War. Rising on the basis of a secular, democratic and relatively egalitarian understanding, which matured during the Enlightenment and became widespread in European societies after the French Revolution, the nation-state, unlike the feudal lords in the Middle Ages and the kingdoms that started to gain strength again in the New Age, had the same religion, Being from the same tribe or being a subject of the same kingdom, it served to the emergence of a different consciousness, a civic consciousness.
The nation-state emerged as a result of the Enlightenment, the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution, and there are 222 independent nation-states in the world today. 171 of them are members of the United Nations.
In his work titled “State and Nationalism”, Ali Osman Gündoğan states that for the realization of the nation-state, there must be a first cultural and second political unity and integration (Gündoğan 2002, p. 197). Again, according to Gündoğan, the nation-state is the modern state that manifests itself in parallel with the ideology of nationalism that emerged after the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, and the history of this modern state understanding dates back to the 19th century (ibid.). The emergence of the nation-state, which became widespread and legitimized in the 20th century, took place in three ways according to the German philosopher Jürgen Habermas (1929-): (1). By spreading to neighboring regions, lineages, sub-cultures, linguistic and religious communities of ethnic groups living separately from each other; (2nd). At the cost of assimilation, suppression or marginalization of peoples or sub-peoples that can be considered an integral part of a society, partly with the help of state policies; (3). Through bloody purification customs and the constant suppression of new minorities (Habermas 2002, p. 50). Habermas argues that the nation-state model that emerged in the second form, although not based on a homogeneous people, aims to create such a homogeneous society artificially and draws attention to the possibility of moving away from democracy for such a nation-state model (ibid.). The nation-state, which Habermas refers to as the third model, is racist, most appropriately: Forced migration is one of the most common solutions used by such states (ibid.).
The term homogeneous, which is found in the Greek words homo, which means “the same”, and genus, which means “type, genus”, is used as an adjective with the meanings of one type, one or the same place, without differences.
Nationalist ideologies emphasizing racism and ethnocentrism form the racist nation-state model. Serbian nationalism of the early 1990s provides a suitable example for such an understanding.
Nation-states, no matter under what conditions and under which models they emerged, their common feature is that they have a unitary structure that cannot easily adopt pluralism (Gündoğan 2002, p. 198). Concerns that multiculturalism will harm the nation-state, which we partially touched upon in the previous unit, can also be interpreted as a result of the reluctance to accept a pluralistic society structure (ibid.). According to Habermas, this can be explained by the dilemma that the concept of nation-state contains. On one side of the dilemma is the universalism of an egalitarian legal society, on the other side there is the locality and uniqueness of a society with common destinies in history (Habermas 2002, p. 23). Such a dilemma arises from two aspects of the concept of nation: 1. Artificial state citizenship nation, 2. Social