The Emergence of Enlightenment Philosophy, How did the Enlightenment Philosophy Appear?December 24, 2019
18-19. century philosophy, individual and social enlightenment in the West.
Enlightenment can be thought of as a word meaning, to reflect on something in order to clarify it, to reveal it. In this period, thinkers tried to enlighten society by keeping the mind in the forefront. In this age, the idea that man can get rid of all problems and reach eternal peace is dominant. This age is also called ağı Age of Reason ” .
18-19. century philosophy; The radical changes in the social life of Western geography are a philosophical movement to free the mind against traditional thought in a period of events affecting the whole world such as the French and Industrial Revolution. In order to understand the period, it is necessary to look at its historical background and know the elements of its formation. 15-17. century philosophy, 18-19. century philosophy. The foundations on which this period’s philosophy rises; developments in philosophy, art and science and social changes.
2-15. In the 19th century, all kinds of problems in Western geography were made on the axis of religion. The fact that the church, which sees itself as the representative of religion, does not allow the use of reason other than religious foundation and suppresses society, has decreased with the emergence of the Renaissance. This new understanding, which started with translation activities from Islamic geography, spread rapidly in line with geographical discoveries and scientific developments. This situation triggered scientific and philosophical development and led to the transition from religion-centered thinking to human-centered thinking. The oppressive mentality that hinders the use of reason in Europe has gradually disappeared.
Under the influence of humanism, new schools of art and philosophy have emerged and new discoveries have been made in science. The increase in literacy with the invention of the printing press has shown that some clergy use religion for their own benefit. This new understanding led to reform movements in the Catholic sect and new sects such as Protestantism emerged.
The 15th century, which began with the modernization in the field of art, is a period in which science and philosophy were opened. Renaissance and reform movements prepared the 17th century thought environment. Developments in science and technique in this period and especially geographical discoveries are important factors that led to the formation of the Intellect Age. 18-19. century, developments in science and industry in line with the developments in the human, changed the way people view nature and social structures based on economic foundations. In the face of this new situation, new cultures of life have been seen in society and struggles of newly formed social classes have begun. This also triggered people’s search for freedom. These experiences brought new insights into philosophy and new ideas emerged especially on people and society.
The Industrial Revolution, which became evident in England in the middle of the 18th century, started primarily in the cotton weaving sector. With the mechanization, cotton was turned into yarn and weaving looms were developed. With the use of steam power, rapid production was realized in the textile field and economic growth was achieved.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook