The Emergence of Globalization, Its Various Dimensions and Its Impact TodayJune 28, 2021
Globalization, or “globalization” in European languages, is an ideology that has raised a flag against the nation-state and nationalism by making use of factors such as downsizing the state and developing company structures, encouraging free trade, as Ali Osman Gündoğan expresses in “State and Nationalism”. (Gundogan 2002, p. 200).
Hatice Nur Erkızan, in her study titled “On the Historical and Intellectual Foundations of Globalization”, states that globalization does not have an economic or sociological feature on its own, that there is a realizing subject or subjects behind this phenomenon, and that this subject is different from the West when viewed from historical, economic and intellectual perspectives. argues that it is not (Erkızan 2002, pp. 61-62).
It emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries and in the 16th-17th centuries. The term “West” is used to refer to the secular New Age European culture and civilization, which gained momentum over the centuries, including English-speaking countries such as the United States of America, Canada, and Australia.
Thinkers such as Anthony Giddens and Roland Robertson, who made remarkable analyzes on globalization, also revealed the multidimensionality of this phenomenon. While Giddens focused on the capitalist economy in his analysis of globalization, Robertson, in his work called Globalization: Theory of History and Global Culture, based socio-cultural processes among the explanatory causes of globalization and substituted these processes for interstate interaction (Robertson 1999, p. 98 et al.). According to Robertson’s approach, globalization emerged ex nihilo – that is, out of nothing – and is actually a historical result of Western civilization’s will to reshape the world and its attempts in this direction (ibid.). In terms of its essence, it can be said that globalization is a whole woven through a chain of events initiated by developed countries and imposed on countries that it describes as “underdeveloped” economically, socially and intellectually (Erkızan 2002, p. 62). Considering that European societies are at the center of this imposition, it can easily be said that the first concrete traces of globalization were encountered between 1400 and 1750, as Robertson stated, and that the weight of the New Age non-religious European discourse, which can be interpreted as the first signs of globalization, is in individualism, humanism and nationalism. (Robertson 1999, pp. 98-102).
In Latin, ex nihilo is a term used to mean from nothing, that is, from nothingness. “Ex nihilo nihil fit”, that is, “nothing comes out of nothing” has been a phrase often uttered to justify one of the fundamental dogmas of Christianity, that there must be a creative force behind this entire universe order – that is, God.
European countries and the United States of America (USA) usually come to mind when developed countries are mentioned. In such an association, the weight that the USA put on world politics after 1945 has a great share.
In the general conceptualization described as globalization, positive and optimistic interpretations of the views emphasizing its innovative nature and dissimilarity are witnessed. In these explanations, we can say that globalization is mentioned in different ways as a process, phenomenon, discourse and theoretical configuration. For those who take a critical attitude, globalization, the discourse of capital, capitalist myth, ideology, neo-liberalism, neo-colonialism have been the subject of evaluations that are loaded with negative meanings and especially emphasize its relationship with capitalism. Thus, explanations of globalization, in which very different and completely different elements are emphasized, and the products of thought that are the extensions of this are encountered.
Globalization has many forms of explanation that differ according to the approaches towards it.
Those who adopt the globalist perspective attribute the meanings of “an undeniable, irreversible and irreversible fact and truth” to globalization as the main dynamic that shapes the contemporary world. Depending on this meaning attribution, reference is made to the necessity of adapting to the rules and consequences of globalization. The dominance and no alternatives of liberalism as the only ideology (new or neo-liberalism), democracy as the only political view, English as the only communication tool, capitalism as the sole economic system and the market economy as a result of the obscuring of the past divided into economic blocs, military camps, rival ideologies is highlighted. According to this approach, economic developments and dynamics are not limited to the economy; They also have a significant impact on political, ideological, social and cultural outcomes.
Globalists or globalists paint a “dust rosy picture” of what globalization brings. According to this approach, globalization is perhaps the only means of salvation for the world’s humanity and is the harbinger of good days to come for humanity.
Globalizationists’ interpretations of globalization, which can also be seen as an idealized situation and a new internationalism statement.