The Emergence of Kalam in the Islamic World

The Emergence of Kalam in the Islamic World

December 22, 2019 0 By Felso

Although the history of this movement can be traced back to the time of the Companions in terms of problems of interest, its subject, purpose and method became an independent discipline, and it was during the Abbasid caliph Hârûnürörtîd (786-809) after a century and a half.

The emergence of the word as a movement of science and thought is influenced by the internal causes of Islam and the religious, political and social problems faced by Islamic society, as well as the external reasons related to the encounter with other religions and cultures of thought. In parallel with the expansion of the Islamic geography and the increase in the Muslim population, the need for deepening of religious thought is becoming increasingly intense. As it seems to be contradictory, especially in terms of its first understood / apparent meanings, efforts towards the correct understanding of religious texts called as “muteshabih m have led to the emergence of different views and understandings on various subjects. On the other hand, in many verses of the Qur’an, people try to observe on their own bodies and souls and on other beings and events, It is called to understand and interpret what is happening, to think and interpret. Stressing that one can reach the right information by using his / her senses, emotions and reasoning, Islam religion insists that the belief and righteous behavior cannot be reached with the information imitated without any examination, evaluation and grounding just because it is learned from its ancestors. Such divine warnings and orders have led the Islamic community to turn to the foundation of religious thought and to produce new knowledge. In addition, in the Qur’an, the existence of God, unity and supreme attributes, especially prophecy, destiny, faith-denial, good-bad, It has been pointed out that many issues such as sevap-sin can be placed on a rational basis and there are mental and logical answers to objections directed against them. The prophet and therefore the Muslims were ordered to fight the superstitious beliefs and behaviors in the most appropriate manner and manner with other religious members who were explained and criticized. Hz. In a short period of time following the death of the Prophet, many people living in the conquered regions became Muslims. These people should be able to give reasonable answers to questions that arise in their minds as much as teaching religion; if other beliefs were compared to the principles of Islamic faith, they had to be shown to be superior and correct. The prophet and therefore the Muslims were ordered to fight the superstitious beliefs and behaviors in the most appropriate manner and manner with other religious members who were explained and criticized. Hz. In a short period of time following the death of the Prophet, many people living in the conquered regions became Muslims. These people should be able to give reasonable answers to questions that arise in their minds as much as teaching religion; if other beliefs were compared to the principles of Islamic faith, they had to be shown to be superior and correct. The prophet and therefore the Muslims were ordered to fight the superstitious beliefs and behaviors in the most appropriate manner and manner with other religious members who were explained and criticized. Hz. In a short period of time following the death of the Prophet, many people living in the conquered regions became Muslims. These people should be able to give reasonable answers to questions that arise in their minds as much as teaching religion; if other beliefs were compared to the principles of Islamic faith, they had to be shown to be superior and correct. These people should be able to give reasonable answers to questions that arise in their minds as much as teaching religion; if other beliefs were compared to the principles of Islamic faith, they had to be shown to be superior and correct. These people should be able to give reasonable answers to questions that arise in their minds as much as teaching religion; if other beliefs were compared to the principles of Islamic faith, they had to be shown to be superior and correct.

The first serious debate and disagreement in Islamic society is political. Upon the death of the Prophet, who came to his place as the caliph. Although Abu Bakr seems to have been solved with the election of the caliph, this issue has gradually deepened and moved to different dimensions. Especially Ali b. Some later supporters of Abu Talib claimed that this political question also had religious foundations. As a result of these discussions, Osman b. Affan and then Ali b. The death of a large number of Companions as a result of internal conflicts during the wars of Abu Talib during the caliphate of Cemal and Sifff brought many discussions and problems to the agenda of Islamic society. How does a Muslim’s murder of another Muslim brother affect his religious status while Islam prohibits killing people? Is he still a believer and a Muslim, or should he be regarded as out of religion? Is there an integrity and integrity between faith and deed / act, or are they interrelated but separate things? Did he act as a necessity of this de facto fate or by his own free will? How should the relationship between divine intervention and influence and human will be understood in human acts and behaviors? The disagreements caused by the discussions on these and other related questions and problems have led to the emergence of various schools / schools. All of these are just a few of the religious reasons that led Muslims to deepen in the field of religious thought.

Kalam is a thought movement that undertakes the systematic and rational basis of belief principles of Islamic religion, renders ineffective bidat which arises from the effects of foreign cultures and causes danger in social life, and responds to criticisms directed against Islam.

The jurisprudence used by Islamic jurists (faqih, fukahâ) in reasoning and inference from the beginning to the time of Gazzali, and the theologians who used jedel (ie dialectics) as the method in theological debates, the logic of Gazzâlî with the slogan of “unreasonable bil After Aristotle, they began to benefit greatly from the logic of Aristotle. Because the method they use is different, the theologians before Gâzzâlî are referred to as mutakaddimîn (previous ones) and the theologians after Gazzâlî are known as şahahhirîn / later ones.

Theologians, whose real purpose was to provide Islamic foundations with rational foundations and explanations, paid special attention to the question of knowledge. Because the first thing they had to do was to show that the source of religion, revelation, is a reliable source of information. For this reason, theologians began to examine this issue as the first chapter of theological books, long before the philosophers dealt with the problem of knowledge as a separate discipline under the name of epistemology in the New Age. There are three sources of reliable information for theologians: (i) healthy working senses, (ii) methodically driven mind, and (iii) true news that coincide with the object. Theologians who express apriori knowledge in terms of “bedihiyyât / obvious”, “evveliyyât / a priori” and “zaruriyyât / obligatory en when explaining the fact that reason is the source of information, They refer to two forms of reasoning, which they call “the evil eye, üzere“ ta’lîl / deduction ”and“ stability / induction ”. There are two types of “faithful / true news leri that the theologians see as the third reliable source of information: ev humble news” and “divine revelation.. (a) The modest news is the information given jointly by a large number of people who cannot form a consensus in the name of deceiving people, and this is the information produced by all sciences with a historical dimension and quality. (b) The information that the prophets took from the divine source in a special way called “revelation a and conveyed to people is also considered true news. Because of the solid characters, trustworthy personalities, superior morals, the divine principles and messages brought by the prophets supported by the miracles they are specially chosen ambassadors, It is a reality witnessed by the history of humanity in which science and art, culture and civilization have contributed greatly to the positive change and development of the totals they live in with their exemplary and leadership. In the context of the question of knowledge, it is important to point out that on the behalf of theologians, they do not regard inspiration and mystical intuition as binding and reliable sources of information, although they accept them on an individual and subjective basis.

While Hâricîler and Mürcie were at two extremes, Mu’tezile and Ahl al-Sunnah approached the problem more moderately and more balanced with their approach to the issue of “great sin“ or “faith-deeds olan which is one of the important issues that theologians have discussed. According to Hajari, the deed who is a part of faith and who committed a great sin has lost his faith and came out of religion. On the other hand, Mürcie, who sees faith and deeds as separate things, states that as long as one says that he is a believer, he cannot be said to have come out of religion by looking at the great sins he has committed; it argues that it is Allah’s decision in the world beyond that, and it is our duty to leave / postpone this provision to the Hereafter. All kinds of crimes and injustice committed in the world and community life will remain unrequited and sanctioned, so religion, With this understanding, which results in the meaninglessness of the values ​​of law and morality, and against the approach of the Kharians to incite conflict and violence in the life of the society, it is not true to say that someone who commits a great sin is not in the Mu’tazile Qur’an because it is reported that God does not love the believers. On the other hand, we cannot be called disbelievers to such people. Therefore, they are located yer somewhere between faith and blasphemy ”(al-menzile beyne’l-menzileteyn), which means that Allah will rule over the world in which status it will be evaluated. On the same subject, the Ahl al-Sunnah theologians are not part of the deeds of faith, it is possible to repent for the sinner u; therefore, a person who commits a sin but does not repent will be punished as a sinner believer in the other world, but will also see the reward of being a believer,

The actions which Islam considers as a great sin because of its social qualities in terms of its effects and consequences are as follows: to do injustice / injustice, 6. to eat interest, 7. to oppose to parents, 8. to escape from war, 9. to slander the chaste / honorable woman, 10. to commit adultery.

There are also the more moderate thinkers, as well as the theologians at the two extremes, in the matter of fate and freedom of will that have come up in connection with the great sin. This issue is extremely paradoxical in that it is inevitable that other views and conclusions can be reached when it is approached from the point of view of God’s absolute knowledge, will, and being the only creative power. Kaderiyya, who examines the problem in the context of human responsibility, argues that human beings have the will and power and that he creates his own act, so that there is no “fate ecek that can limit and direct him. Jabriya, which emerged as the anti-thesis of this thesis, is the absolute knowledge of Allah. In the face of his plan of destiny, which he draws with his will and creative power, he argued that human beings cannot have any will and power. Like this understanding, which makes human beings a robot, the understanding of Kaderiyye which brings a passive and idle concept of God while absoluteizing human will and power is incompatible with religious and human realities. Mu’tezile, between these two extremes, said that God gave him the will and power to realize his own actions, but he also encompassed his will and power in his eternal knowledge. According to this, God commands the good for the will, and the bad does not for the will; He takes responsibility for doing what he wills from man with the power given to him by Allah. Ash’ariyya, one of the two great schools of Ahl al-Sunnah, He believes that all actions of man are known, appreciated and created by Allah. But according to them, there is a üz juz’î will sağlayan that makes people responsible for what they do. His act with this will is realized by Allah’s creation; therefore, because he chooses that act, one gains his / her responsibility. According to Ash’ariyye, God is the lık human being lık who creates / creates “the scout / winner kazanan.