The Enlightenment Philosophy of Philosophy of ExistenceJune 28, 2021
Hegel’s “Truth is the whole.” and “The rational is the real, the real is the rational.” judgments; It is the summary, scope and beginning of Hegel’s philosophy.
Hegel says that all beings exist within a law from a single essence. HE IS; expresses a single thing in different terms; In Hegel, “God”, “geist”, “idea”, “reason” or “spirit” are different concepts that represent the absolute.
Spirit is at first identical with itself and being for itself. Spirit does not recognize itself at this stage. In order to know himself, he must see himself in what is not himself. He is the opposite of himself. The opposite of spirit is nature. Spirit, which has turned into nature and becoming the universe, has lost itself here. Pulling off the lost requires a new transformation. Spirit, whose purpose is to know itself, forces nature to a new transformation. Spirit and nature reconcile. The newly synthesized state is man, the perfect harmony of spirit and nature. The history of humanity is the ground for the spirit to find and know itself.
The self-knowledge of the spirit is the result of a principle and dialectical law in which Hegel explains the formation and change of beings. This law includes a triple process of becoming: thesis (argument), antithesis (antithesis) and synthesis (new argument). The new argument is also the beginning of a new dialectical process.
Every being has the potential to become something within. For every being to become what it will be, it must transform, that is, transform into its opposite. Ultimately, it turns into what it can be with a new synthesis at the end of this dialectical process. For example, an apple seed is also a seed, which has the power to be a tree and an apple in a tree. The process of becoming a seed from seed to fruit again is a dialectical cycle. When the seed falls on the ground, it sprouts if sufficient conditions are created, that is, it comes out of the seed pod. The seed forms the body, and this body does not yet contain new seeds. If the growing conditions are right, it starts to bloom with a new jump, then to produce fruit and thus to form new seeds.
“There is nothing new under the sun.” Hegel expresses the dialectic of nature as a cycle. In Hegel’s philosophy, dialectics is valid for every being, assertion and concept. However, the history of humanity has broken this cyclicity and has been able to convey both its vitality and its knowledge thanks to its intelligence.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook, MEB Philosophy Textbook