The Historical Adventure of SkepticismJuly 2, 2021
The philosophical skeptic does not claim that we know nothing. Once we already say, “I don’t know anything”, at least we know that I don’t know anything, contradicting our own words. The main stance of the skeptic is to challenge the claim that we have knowledge. I think we know many things, but how can we defend these claims? What grounds can we put forward to substantiate the claim that we have any knowledge? Our so-called knowledge of our world is based on our perceptions and minds. But aren’t such perceptions always error-prone? How can we be sure that we are not having delusions or dreams? Or because our memory is playing tricks on us? What we consider real is perhaps not real.
1. Antiquity: In the historical process, skepticism emerged in the ages when the ideas put forward became obsolete and new ideas had not yet emerged. The first of these epochs is the one in which the Greek slave-owning society degenerated and was on the verge of collapse. This corruption and collapse was reflected in the skepticism of the Greek sophists. The multitude of attempts at philosophical explanation since Thales has naturally necessitated criticism and doubt. This age is called the age of ancient enlightenment. Protagoras (485-411), the founder of ancient Greek sophistication, is the first suspect in the historical process. He says: “The measure of everything is man. As everything appears to me, so it is to me, as it appears to you, so it is to you. The wind is cold for the cold, not cold for the cold. Two completely opposite words can be said about everything. Therefore, it is impossible to obtain a precise and absolute knowledge necessary for everyone. This relativistic skepticism goes even further to nihilism in Gorgias of Leontinoil (483-375), the follower of Protagoras. Gorgias says: “There is nothing. Even if it exists, it cannot be grasped for man. Even if it is understood, it cannot be explained to other people.” Ancient Greek skepticism was schooled with Pyrrhon of Elis (365-275) after this first scholarly period. The skeptic Pyrrhon was the first to systematically examine the problem of knowledge. That’s why Pyrrhon is called the founder of skepticism. Pyrrhon, a contemporary of Alexander the Great and Aristotle, was quick to sense the opposition between the Akademia and the peripatos (Plato and Aristotle) schools, and later watched this opposition deepen in the Stoic and Epicurean schools. These observations instilled in Pyrrhon distrust and, therefore, suspicion of the teachings of philosophy. He says: “There is nothing really beautiful or ugly. It is the personal choice of the person who finds anything beautiful or ugly. Since there is no true knowledge, the wise man must avoid judgment in everything.” Spiritual comfort can only be achieved with such indifference or indifference. Explaining these thoughts with his oral lessons and his life, Pyrrhon’s teaching was spread in written form by his follower Timon (320-230). Timon formulated his master’s teaching in three propositions:
a. The true nature of things is incomprehensible.
b. Our attitude towards objects must therefore be nonjudgmental.
c. It is only with this attitude that we can attain spiritual serenity.
This is true happiness for pyronians.
As can be seen, the agnosticism that will take shape in Kant’s teaching centuries later is reflected in the form of skepticism in the ancient Greeks. In other words, ancient agnosticism is skepticism. Pyrrhon skepticism also influenced Stoicism and Epicureanism to some extent. After that we see Skepticism seeping into the academy maintained by Plato’s followers. Some historians of philosophy describe this infiltration as a great achievement of Pyrrhon skepticism (? N. skepticism will inevitably arise, and skepticism that already existed in the Academy has arisen N.). This skeptical period of Plato’s academy, called academy skepticism, is the middle academy period. Academia skepticism maintained by thinkers such as Archesilaos (316-241, Karneades (214-129) and Clitomachus (180-110)) is described as measure skepticism by historians of philosophy.Academy skepticism has replaced the term “certain truth” with the expression “like the truth” and argued that they should be contented with. According to Bertrand Russell, we may find that some things tend to be more truthful than others, although we may never attain certainty, according to what is true. The most probable is the most probable. This is an opinion that most contemporary thinkers can share, he says.) Therefore, academic skepticism has been characterized as positive doubt or fruitful doubt, because even if this doubt has not reached the exact truth yet, considering that it can be mistaken, it seeks the definitive truth and is always self-sufficient. it is getting closer and closer to the exact truth by correcting and completing it. ber, BC: One of the three thinkers that Athens sent to Rome as an embassy in 56 BC.