The Life and Works of Al-Ghazali (Ghazali)

The Life and Works of Al-Ghazali (Ghazali)

June 26, 2021 Off By Felso

Ebû Hamid Muhammed b. Muhammad al-Ghazali was born in 1058 in Tus, in the Khorasan region of Iran. Although he is referred to by nicknames such as Hüccetülislâm and Zeynüddin, his famous nisbe Gazzâlî (Gazâlî) is known as Abuhamet and Algazel by the Medieval Western scholastics. We have no information about Ghazali’s family, who is believed to be of Persian origin, except that he has a brother named Ahmed and a few sisters.

While his father was making a living from spinning in Tus, he was also establishing relations with the intellectual environment, increasing his knowledge in the mosque classes he attended, and even providing financial support to the scholars as much as he could. Shortly before his death, he entrusted his sons Muhammad and Ahmed, whom he wished to receive good education, to a Sufi friend. It can be guessed that Gazzâlî, who received his traditional primary education with this father’s friend, was influenced by both his father and his new patron in the formation of his spiritual life during his childhood. He used his father’s friend, patron Ghazali, and his brother for their education, using the little opportunity their father left behind, and placed them in a madrasah, stating that he could not help them any more. Gazzâlî, Ahmed b. He started his education in Tus with the fiqh lessons he took from a scholar named Muhammed er-Râzkanî, then went to Cürcân and continued there for five years (Çağrıcı, 1996: 489-490).

While returning to Tus in a convoy, their way is cut off by the robbers and everything is taken. Gazzâlî tells Cürcân that he went only to study science and asks the bandit chief to return his lecture notes at least. The bandit leader asks if he left the information on the papers instead of putting it in his memory, and then returns his grades. Considering this criticism a warning from Allah, al-Ghazali memorized all the notes within three years.

With the thought that he could continue his education by benefiting from the scholarship application of the Seljuk vizier Nizamülmük, Gazzâlî went to Nişabur in 1080 and entered the Nizamiye Madrasah there, where he became the student of al-Cüveynî, the most well-known theologian of the period. One of the personalities that Gazzâlî, who met theology and philosophy in his lessons, benefited and influenced greatly during his education in Nishapur, was the famous sufi Abu Ali al-Fârmedî. Going to the headquarters of Nizam al-Mulk in 1085 after Juwayni’s death and being respected by the vizier despite being twenty-eight years old, was an important turning point in Ghazali’s life. During the six years he spent here, he benefited from well-educated scholars and thinkers, and also had the opportunity to increase his success and reputation through scientific discussions and discussions.

Gazzâlî, who was appointed as the professor of the Baghdad Nizamiye Madrasah in 1091 by Nizamülmülk, on the one hand gave lessons to about three hundred students and continued his studies of writing and classification, on the other hand, made researches and studies on theology, Bâtinîlik, philosophy and mysticism. The conclusion he reached at the end of these analyzes with a critical approach dragged him into a mental-spiritual depression. Gradually, physiological disturbances began to emerge, difficulty in lecturing began, and he became debilitated due to anorexia and indigestion.

Ghazali, who decided that his means and the situation he was in threatened his inner world and spiritual life, left Baghdad to go to Damascus in 1095, giving his place in the madrasah to his brother Ahmed, distributing all his wealth more than enough for his family to the poor. In Damascus, where he stayed for two years, he spent his time in asceticism in a corner of the Umayyad Mosque in order to discover himself and mature morally. Later, Ghazali, who went to Jerusalem and lived in seclusion there for a while, fulfilled his pilgrimage and returned to Nishapur and his family, which he had longed for, in 1106. Although he started teaching again at the Nizamiye Madrasah here, this teaching life, which was understood to be not as enjoyable and active as before, lasted for three years and he returned to Tus, where he was born in 1109. Gazzâlî, who had a madrasa and a dervish lodge built next to his house, spent the last years of his life teaching and writing, died on December 18, 1111. His grave is near the tomb of the famous poet Ferdowsi in Tus.

Gazzâlî, one of the most influential figures in the history of Islamic science and thought, wrote four hundred works in his short life of fifty-four years, ranging from fiqh to mysticism, from theology to logic and philosophy, from morality to education. Some of his surviving works are as follows: Mi’yârü’lilm (The Criterion of Knowledge), Mihakkü’n-nazar fî ilmi’l-logic, Şifaü’l-galîl, al-Kıstasü’lmüstakîm, Fedî’ihu’l-Batiniyye (Batinism Inner Side), el-İktisâd fi’l-İ’tikad (Middle Way in Faith), al-Maksadü’l-esnâ, İlcamü’l-avâm an ilmi’l-kelâm, Makâsıdü’l-falâsife (Aims of Philosophers), Tehâfütü’l-felâsife (The Inconsistency of Philosophers), Mişkâtü’l- Envâr (Lighthouse of Lights), el-Münkızü mine’d-dalâl (Liberation from Falsehood), er-Risâletü’l-ledünniyye, Mî