The Philosophy of Jean Jacques RousseauJune 27, 2021
In the most general sense, it is possible to approach Rousseau’s thought from three different aspects:
“As a social contract theorist” Rousseau tries to construct a hypothetical state of nature in order to explain the existing human condition. This effort revolves around a philosophical anthropology consisting of both a theory of human nature and a set of pragmatic arguments for social organization. “As a social commentator”, Rousseau tries to reveal both the existing forms of practice and ideal forms of education and social organization. “As a moralist” Rousseau, on the other hand, tries to bring the individual and the citizen together in a pot, through some form of universal political action or consensus.
Starting from the 1750s, Rousseau developed thoughts on the nature and origins of the human condition in society, and accordingly, on what can be done and what should be done in order to improve the existing situation, which gradually deepens, and whose understanding is migratory.
Dijon Academy’s “Have the developments in science and art found their reflection in moral life?” Rousseau, who was observed to reveal much more striking but superficial thoughts than those in his later works, in his work titled Discours sur les sciences et les arts, 1750, which he wrote for the essay competition on the subject and won an award, stated that neither scientific knowledge nor scientific knowledge in this work. He argues that neither the increase of the arts nor the creation of fine works alone will lead to moral improvement either on the basis of the individual or on the basis of society as a whole. On the contrary, Rousseau underlines that such a high-level cultural structure would be too luxurious and unnecessary considering the existing position of the society, and argues that humanity can progress only with the thoughts of very few religious thinkers.
Nevertheless, Rousseau openly expresses his deep concern that many would suffer irreparable damage rather than any effect in terms of progress in the face of the manifestation of “high tastes and learnings”. The essay in question attracted a considerable amount of attention for the period it was published, and although Rousseau received a lot of reaction to which he would later respond carefully, Rousseau began writing on social criticism, as his interest in music outweighed his interest in music for a short time after this article. delayed for a while.
As a matter of fact, Rousseau, who criticizes French music in his article titled Letter on French Music, written in 1753, attributes all these negative features of French music, which he finds monotonous, rough and colorless, to the French spoken language, which he considers as the land where the music in question is rooted. Rousseau, in his essay titled On the Origin of Languages, which he started to write between 1755 and 1760, but which he could not complete, which would later attract the great attention of the French deconstructive thinker Derrida, Rousseau uses the French language as “ask for help” or “call for help”. He argues that it is shaped by exclamations of “controlling other people”. He states that these attributes are the main cause of the tasteless saltiness, simplicity, and even extreme openness of the French language. In addition, Rousseau draws attention to the fact that the accents of the languages of the countries where the hot southern climates prevail, full of love and passion always make the language colorful, and the most obvious example of this can be seen in the “Italian Opera”, and states that social and political demands deeply affect even the language of music. Rousseau, who carries the word from here to the point that an effective state administration should have a sharp, harsh and impressive expression, turns all his attention to the origin and function of the state administration or government in another “experiment”.
In his Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men (Discours sur l’origine et les fondements de l’inégalité parmi les hommes, 1755), Rousseau presents an almost entirely ‘pastoral’ view of humanity. This very important article, which is shown among the most important works of Rousseau, basically examines the subject of the collapse of natural humanity by tracing the main moments of the history of corruption and corruption, from wild communities to societies and finally to the state.
Rousseau’s work titled The Social Contract (Du Contrat social, 1762) is among the classic works of both political theory and political philosophy. In the literary work, which is divided into four separate books, the “First Book” provides the appropriate ground for the establishment of a legitimate political order; The “Second Book” covers the origin and functions of the dominant structure in such an order; The “Third Book” covers the duties of the subordinate government, which derives all its power and authority from the sovereign structure; “Book Four”, especially the Roman state